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Yamalia

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Yamalia

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
Ямало-Ненецкий автономный округ (Russian)
—  Autonomous okrug  —
Flag
Coat of arms
Coordinates: 67°15′N 74°40′E / 67.250°N 74.667°E / 67.250; 74.667Coordinates: 67°15′N 74°40′E / 67.250°N 74.667°E / 67.250; 74.667
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Urals[1]
Economic region West Siberian[2]
Established December 10, 1930
Administrative center Salekhard
Government (as of March 2011)
 - Governor Dmitry Kobylkin[3]
 - Legislature Legislative Assembly
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[4]
 - Total 750,300 km2 (289,692.4 sq mi)
Area rank 6th
Population (2010 Census)[5]
 - Total 522,904
 - Rank 71st
 - Density[6] 0.7 /km2 (1.8 /sq mi)
 - Urban 84.7%
 - Rural 15.3%
Time zone(s) YEKT (UTC+06:00)[7]
ISO 3166-2 RU-YAN
License plates 89
Official languages Russian[8]
Official website

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Russian: Яма́ло-Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг, Yamalo-Nenetsky Avtonomny Okrug; Nenets: Ямалы-Ненёцие автономной ӈокрук), is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Tyumen Oblast). Its administrative center is the town of Salekhard, and its largest city is Noyabrsk. Population: 522,904 (2010 Census).[5]

Geography and natural history

The Nenets people are an indigenous tribe that have long survived in this region. Their prehistoric life involved subsistence hunting and gathering, including the taking of polar bears; the practice of hunting polar bears (Ursus maritimus) continues up to the present time.[9]

Yamalo-Nenetsky Avtonomny Okrug is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude.

History

On December 10, 1930, Yamal (Nenets) National Okrug (Ямальский (Ненецкий) национальный округ) was formed based on Ural Oblast.

Administrative divisions

Demographics

Population: Template:Ru-census2010 507,006 (2002 Census);[10] 486,164 (1989 Census).[11]

Vital statistics

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1970 84 1 683 879 804 20.0 10.5 9.6
1975 127 2 307 819 1 488 18.2 6.4 11.7
1980 194 3 347 1 178 2 169 17.3 6.1 11.2
1985 374 7 838 1 555 6 283 21.0 4.2 16.8
1990 489 8 032 1 631 6 401 16.4 3.3 13.1
1991 483 7 121 1 623 5 498 14.7 3.4 11.4
1992 470 6 123 2 108 4 015 13.0 4.5 8.5
1993 466 5 697 2 764 2 933 12.2 5.9 6.3
1994 473 6 274 2 998 3 276 13.3 6.3 6.9
1995 483 6 337 3 107 3 230 13.1 6.4 6.7
1996 489 6 241 3 004 3 237 12.8 6.1 6.6
1997 495 6 208 2 715 3 493 12.5 5.5 7.1
1998 498 6 395 2 544 3 851 12.8 5.1 7.7
1999 498 6 071 2 608 3 463 12.2 5.2 7.0
2000 497 5 839 2 763 3 076 11.7 5.6 6.2
2001 501 6 388 3 057 3 331 12.8 6.1 6.7
2002 506 6 635 2 934 3 701 13.1 5.8 7.3
2003 510 7 163 3 093 4 070 14.1 6.1 8.0
2004 511 7 264 2 975 4 289 14.2 5.8 8.4
2005 512 7 148 3 099 4 049 14.0 6.0 7.9
2006 513 7 036 3 000 4 036 13.7 5.8 7.9
2007 515 7 700 2 937 4 763 14.9 5.7 9.2
2008 517 7 892 2 959 4 933 15.3 5.7 9.5
2009 519 8 216 2 924 5 292 15.8 5.6 10.2
2010 522 8 263 2 873 5 390 15.8 5.5 10.3

Regional demographics for 2008 (Jan-Oct)[12]

Raion Pp (2007) Births Deaths Growth BR DR NGR
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug 538,600 5,814 2,202 3,612 14.39 5.45 0.89%
Salekhard 40,500 499 256 243 16.43 8.43 0.80%
Gubkinsky 22,300 263 71 192 15.72 4.25 1.15%
Labytnangi 27,700 333 212 121 16.03 10.20 0.58%
Muravlenko 37,000 361 104 257 13.01 3.75 0.93%
Nadym 48,500 443 197 246 12.18 5.42 0.68%
Novy Urengoy 117,000 1122 334 788 12.79 3.81 0.90%
Noyabrsk 109,900 1029 384 645 12.48 4.66 0.78%
Krasnoselkupsky 6,200 99 41 58 21.29 8.82 1.25%
Nadymsky 21,300 221 67 154 13.83 4.19 0.96%
Priuralsky 15,300 179 72 107 15.60 6.27 0.93%
Purovsky 49,900 548 195 353 14.64 5.21 0.94%
Tazovsky 17,200 268 92 176 20.78 7.13 1.36%
Shuryshkarsky 9,900 144 69 75 19.39 9.29 1.01%
Yamalsky 15,900 305 108 197 25.58 9.06 1.65%

Ethnic groups

The Nenets make up 5.9% of the population, preceded by ethnic Russians (61.7%), Ukrainians (9.7%), and Tatars (5.6%). Other prominent ethnic groups include Belarusians (1.3%), Khants (1.9%), Azerbaijanis (1.8%), Bashkirs (1.7%), Komi (1%), and Moldovans (0.9%) (all figures are from the 2010 Census).[5] Due to the area's oil and natural gas wealth, it is one of the few places in Russia where the ethnic Russian population is growing.

Ethnic
group
1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Nenets 13,454 29.3% 13,977 22.4% 17,538 21.9% 17,404 11.0% 20,917 4.2% 26,435 5.2% 29,772 5.9%
Khants 5,367 11.7% 5,519 8.9% 6,513 8.1% 6,466 4.1% 7,247 1.5% 8,760 1.7% 9,489 1.9%
Komi 4,722 10.3% 4,866 7.8% 5,445 6.8% 5,642 3.6% 6,000 1.2% 6,177 1.2% 5,141 1.0%
Selkups 87 0.2% 1,245 2.0% 1,710 2.1% 1,611 1.0% 1,530 0.3% 1,797 0.4% 1,988 0.4%
Russians 19,308 42.1% 27,789 44.6% 37,518 46.9% 93,750 59.0% 292,808 59.2% 298,359 58.8% 312,019 61.7%
Ukrainians 395 0.9% 1,921 3.1% 3,026 3.8% 15,721 9.9% 85,022 17.2% 66,080 13.0% 48,985 9.7%
Tatars 1,636 3.6% 3,952 6.3% 4,653 5.8% 8,556 5.4% 26,431 5.3% 27,734 5.5% 28,509 5.6%
Others 871 1.9% 3,065 4.9% 3,574 4.5% 9,694 6.1% 54,889 11.1% 71,664 14.1% 74,625 14.3%
1 17,517 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[13]

Religion

Template:Pie chart According to a 2012 official survey[14] 42.2% of the population of Yamalia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 14% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, 1% to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism) or to shamanic religions, 1% to forms of Protestantism; Muslims, mostly Caucasian peoples and Tatars, make up 18% of the total population. In addition, 14% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 8% is atheist, and 0.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[14]

Economy

Yamalo-Nenetsky Avtonomny Okrug is Russia's most important source of natural gas, with more than 90% of Russia's natural gas being produced there. The region also accounts for 12% of Russia's oil production.[15] The region is of utmost importance to Russia's largest company Gazprom, whose main production fields are located there. Novatek – the country's second largest gas producer – is also active in the region, with its headquarteres located in Tarko-Sale.

See also

  • List of Chairmen of the Legislative Assembly of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

References

External links

  • Nadym Community (Russian)
  • muji.ru (Russian)
  • Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Tourism
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