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Willamette Cattle Company

 

Willamette Cattle Company

Willamette Cattle Company
Date 1837
Location Willamette Valley
North America
Also known as Wallamet or Willamet Cattle Company
Participants Ewing Young and others

The Willamette Cattle Company was formed in 1837 by pioneers in the Willamette Valley of present-day Oregon, United States. The company was formed with the express purpose of purchasing cattle in Mexican California to bring to Oregon Country. The group led by Ewing Young procured nearly 750 head of cattle and 40 horses and drove these animals overland north to Oregon Country.

Contents

  • Background 1
  • Agreement 2
  • Expedition 3
  • Legacy 4
  • Participants 5
    • Company 5.1
    • Cattle drive 5.2
  • References 6

Background

Prior to the activities of the Willamette Cattle Company, virtually all cattle in the region were owned by the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC).[1] In order to perpetuate that lucrative monopoly the HBC only leased cattle, never selling the animals and all calves born would be owned by the HBC.[2] In order to circumvent that monopoly residents of the valley, including some former employees of the HBC, were drawn together by Lieutenant William A. Slacum.[1] Slacum had been sent west by President Andrew Jackson to inquire about the strategic and economic conditions in Oregon.[3] The lieutenant had arrived via the brig Loriot and became aware of the cattle situation amongst the pioneers.[1]

Agreement

A variety of settlers including missionaries such as Jason Lee on behalf of the Methodist Mission, former HBC employees, HBC employees, and American pioneers created a joint-stock company to travel via the Loriot to California and purchase as many heads of cattle as they could.[1][2] The articles of incorporation were signed on January 13, 1837[1] at Campment du Sable.[4] They would then drive the cattle overland north to the Willamette Valley and distribute the cattle proportional to the amount invested into the company by each investor.[1] The company would pay for all expenses of those journeying to Mexican held California and pay them $20 per month in wages.[1] American Ewing Young was selected as the leader of the company and in charge of going to California with Philip Leget Edwards as treasurer.[4]

Expedition

On January 22, 1837, the Willamette Cattle Company employees set sail aboard the Loriot from

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j
  3. ^ Oregon Blue Book: Oregon History: Federal Interests. Oregon Secretary of State. Retrieved on February 28, 2008.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j
  5. ^ a b Corning, Howard M. (1989) Dictionary of Oregon History. Binfords & Mort Publishing. p. 266.
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i
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-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end

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-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end

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function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

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function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end

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function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end


-- Helper functions


local p = {}

local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


References

  • Incomplete list:[4] Young, Bailey, Carmichael, De Puis, Philip Leget Edwards, Ergnette, Gay, Tibbets, Turner, and B. Williams.

Those participating in the cattle drive from California:

Cattle drive

  • Complete list: Ewing Young,[2] Jason Lee,[2] [9] Emert Ergnette[9] Pierre De Puis,[9],Lawrence Carmichael [9]

Those investing in the Willamette Cattle Company:

Company

Participants

The procurement of cattle began to help break the dependence of the settlers on the cattle of the Hudson’s Bay Company.[1] Young’s role made him the wealthiest of the settlers, which would lend a part in the attempt to form a government after his death in 1841 to deal with his heirless estate.[2] However, even with over 600 cattle among the approximately 500 Europeans[2] in the valley, there was still more demand for cattle, and the settlers would come up with a novel enterprise with the Star of Oregon episode in 1840-1843 to get more cattle.[7]

Legacy

Finally, in October the group returned to the European settlements of the Willamette Valley.[4] They had arrived with approximately 630 head of cattle and 15 horses left from what was purchased in California.[2] Some of these animals were lost by natural causes, some were killed by natives, at least one was killed by the group for feed, and others simply wandered off.[4] The remaining animals were then divided amongst the investors with a value of $8.50 per head, with Young receiving the largest allotment of 135.[2] Those who participated in the cattle drive were paid at the rate of $1 per day in the form of cattle.[6] Expenses of the group that traveled to California totaled $42.75, with 200 cattle lost on the trip.[5]

This event angered Young and raised tensions in an area that still had sizable populations of Native Americans. [4]

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