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From top clockwise: View from Pattom,  Infosys Campus, Technopark Phase III,  Ponmudi Hills,  Kazhakootam-Kovalam Bypass,  Kovalam,  Kerala University and Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple
From top clockwise: View from Pattom, Infosys Campus, Technopark Phase III, Ponmudi Hills, Kazhakootam-Kovalam Bypass, Kovalam, Kerala University and Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple
Thiruvanathpuram is located in Kerala
Country  India
State Kerala
District Thiruvananthapuram
 • Body Thiruvananthapuram Corporation
 • Mayor Adv. K. Chandrika
 • Deputy Mayor G. Happykumar
 • City Police Commissioner H. Venkatesh IPS
 • Member of Parliament Shashi Tharoor (Lok Sabha)
Arearank = 20
 • Metropolis 296.86 km2 (114.62 sq mi)
Elevation 10 m (30 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Metropolis 176,957,730[2]
 • Rank 20
 • Density 4,454/km2 (11,540/sq mi)
 • Metro[3] 2,587,4,706
 • Official Malayalam · English,French
 • Spoken languages Malayalam(മലയാളം) · English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code 91 (0)471 XXX XXXX
Vehicle registration KL-01, KL-22
Coastline 78 kilometres (48 mi)
Sex ratio 1064[1] /
Literacy 93.72[1]%
Planning agency TRIDA
Civic agency Thiruvananthapuram Corporation
Distance from Mumbai 1,543 kilometres (959 mi) NW (land)
Distance from Delhi 2,814 kilometres (1,749 mi) N (land)
Climate Am/Aw (Köppen)
Precipitation 1,700 millimetres (67 in)
Avg. annual temperature 27.2 °C (81.0 °F)
Avg. summer temperature 35 °C (95 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 24.4 °C (75.9 °F)
Website .in.corporationoftrivandrumwww

Thiruvananthapuram (IPA:  ( )), also known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala and the headquarters of the Thiruvananthapuram District. It is located on the west coast of India near the extreme south of the mainland. Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the "evergreen city of India",[4][5] the city is characterised by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills and busy commercial alleys.[6] As of 2001, the city had a population of 957,730 inhabitants with a total of around 2.68 million in the urban agglomeration. It is the largest and most populous city corporation in Kerala and the largest urban agglomerations in the state.[7] Thiruvananthapuram contributes 80% of the state's software exports and is a major IT hub.[8][9][10]

The city is home to Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), College of Engineering Thiruvananthapuram (CET),the Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (JNTBGRI),[11] Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Technopark, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST),[12] the Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Kerala,[13] Indian Institute of Science, Education and Research (IISER),[14] the Centre for Development Studies, the Centre for Development of Imaging Technology (C-DIT), the National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, the International Centre for Free and Open Source Software[15][16] (ICFOSS), the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology and the Sree Chitira Thirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology.[17] It is also considered as one of the 10 greenest cities in India.[18][19] Thiruvananthapuram was ranked as the best city in Kerala to live in by a recent Times of India survey.[20] The city is also ranked as the best city in India for Housing and Transport by a survey conducted by India Today.[21][22]


  • Toponymy 1
  • History 2
  • Geography and climate 3
    • Climate 3.1
  • Economy 4
  • Administration and law 5
  • Infrastructure 6
  • Tourism 7
  • Transport 8
    • Road 8.1
    • Rail 8.2
    • Monorail 8.3
    • Sub Urban Rail 8.4
    • Air 8.5
    • Sea 8.6
  • Demographics 9
  • Culture 10
  • Education 11
    • Science and technology 11.1
  • Media 12
  • Sports 13
  • Strategic importance 14
  • Notable people 15
  • Picture gallery 16
  • Notes 17
  • See also 18
  • References 19
  • External links 20


The city gets its name from the Malayalam word thiru-anantha-puram IPA:  ( ), meaning the "City of Lord Ananta".[23] The name derives from the deity of the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple at the centre of the city. Anantha is the serpent Shesha on whom Padmanabha or Vishnu reclines. This temple of Vishnu reclining on Anantha remains the iconic landmark of the city. It is estimated that the value of the monumental items and assets of the temple partially revealed are close to 1000 billion (US$16 billion), making it the richest temple in the world.[24] The city was officially referred to as Trivandrum until 1991, when the government decided to reinstate the city's original name Thiruvananthapuram.


Painting by Raja Ravi Varma depicting Richard Temple-Grenville, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos being greeted by Visakham Thirunal, with Ayilyam Thirunal of Travancore looking on, during Buckingham's visit to Thiruvananthapuram, Travancore in early 1880.
Kowdiar Palace built in 1915 was the official residence of the Travancore Royal Family.[25]

Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient region with trading traditions dating back to 1000 BCE.[26][27] It is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir (now Poovar) in Thiruvananthapuram in 1036 BCE.[28] The city was the trading post of spices, sandalwood and ivory.[29] However, the ancient political and cultural history of the city was almost entirely independent from that of the rest of Kerala. The early rulers of the city were the Ays. With their fall in the 10th century, the city was taken over by the rulers of Venad.[30]

The rise of modern Thiruvananthapuram began with accession of Marthanda Varma in 1729 as the founding ruler of the princely state of Travancore (Thiruvithamkoor in the local vernacular). Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital of Travancore in 1745 after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram in Kanyakumari district.[31] The city developed into a major intellectual and artistic centre during this period. The golden age in the city's history was during the mid 19th century under the reign of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Maharaja Ayilyam Thirunal. This era saw the establishment of the first English school (1834), the Observatory (1837), the General Hospital (1839), the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library and the University College (1873). The first mental hospital in the state was started during the same period. Sanskrit College, Ayurveda College, Law College and a second grade college for women were started by Moolam Thirunal (1885–1924).[30]

The early 20th century was an age of tremendous political and social changes in the city. The Sree Moolam Assembly, established in 1904, was the first democratically elected legislative council in any Indian state.[32] Despite not being under direct control of the British Empire at any time, the city featured prominently in India's freedom struggle. The Indian National Congress had a very active presence in Thiruvananthapuram. A meeting of the Indian National Congress presided by Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramaiah was held here in 1938.

The Thiruvananthapuram Municipality came into existence in 1920. The municipality was converted into a Corporation on 30 October 1940, during the period of Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma, who took over in 1931.[33] The city witnessed many-sided progress during his period. The promulgation of "Temple Entry Proclamation" (1936) was an act that underlined social emancipation. This era also saw the establishment of the University of Travancore in 1937, which later became Kerala University.[34]

With the end of the British rule in 1947, Travancore chose to join the Indian union,after toying with the idea of independence till as late as 1949. In fact, it had declared itself to be independent on 18th June, 1947. An assassination attempt on the Dewan, Sir C P Ramaswamy Iyer and his exit turned the tables on the votaries of an "American Model" Travancore. The first popular ministry headed by Pattom Thanu Pillai was installed in office on 24 March 1948. In 1949, Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Thiru-Kochi, the state formed by the integration of Travancore with its northern neighbour Kochi,which incidentally was the first princely state to accede to the Indian Union.[35] The king of Travancore, Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma, became the Rajpramukh of the Travancore-Cochin Union from 1 July 1949 until 31 October 1956. When the state of Kerala was formed on 1 November 1956, Thiruvananthapuram became its capital.[36]

With the establishment of

  • Official District website
  • Public Relations Department Page on Thiruvananthapuram
  • Government of Kerala Website on Thiruvananthapuram District
  • List of Educational Institutions under University of Kerala Archived 27 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine

External links

  • Manorama Yearbook 1995 (Malayalam Edition) ISSN 0970-9096
  • Manorama Yearbook 2003 (English Edition) ISBN 81-900461-8-7
  • Frank Modern Certificate Geography II ISBN 81-7170-007-1
  • Growing Populations, Changing Landscapes – Studies from India, China and United States 2001 (National Academy Press, Washington DC)


See also

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Picture gallery

See List of people from Thiruvananthapuram

Notable people

Being the Indian city with the closest air link to the small island nation of Maldives and also Sri Lanka,[131] the city's medical and health infrastructure caters to the needs of the patients from both countries, especially Maldives.[132] Thiruvananthapuram also provides a key link in the movement of goods and passengers to and from southern parts of Tamil Nadu into Kerala, the state border being just 30 km from the city centre.

Thiruvananthapuram is a strategically important city in Southern India. Being the largest city in India's deep south, it is important for both military logistics and civil aviation in the southern part of the country. It is the headquarters of the Southern Air Command (SAC) of the Indian Air Force.[128] Due to the strategic importance of the city, the Indian Air Force authorities have planned to establish an aerospace command in SAC.[129] The plan for setting up a new "Tri-Service Command", which will integrate all the three forces under a single command, is also in the pipeline.[130]


Strategic importance

The Kariavattom Outdoor Stadium, is an upcoming cricket/football stadium in Thiruvananthapuram. It is the first stadium in the country coming up on DBOT (Design-Build- Operate and Transfer) basis. It is also the first stadium in the country to be developed on annuity mode. It is the proposed venue for the opening/closing ceremonies of the 35th National Games to be held in Kerala.[127] The playing arena in the stadium will be constructed in line with FIFA regulations and ICC norms.

The city has a Jimmy George Sports Complex at Vellayambalam. Many state level and national level swimming competitions are held in this complex. It also holds coaching camps for those who are interested in learning swimming.

The Jimmy George Indoor Stadium, the GV Raja Sports School and Lakshmi Bhai National College for Physical Education (LNCPE) are the other major sports establishments in the city.

The most popular games are Football and Cricket.[124] Basketball, Badminton and Volleyball are also popular, mostly in schools. The Kerala Cricket Association (KCA) is headquartered in Thiruvananthapuram. The HQ complex of KCA, has advance facilities including two practice turfs with nets, bowling machines, gymnasium with multi-gym and equipment for aerobic training, lecture hall and library, an astro-turf indoor coaching facility, fully furnished accommodation for coaches and players, a physiotherapy clinic, functional office facilities and guest rooms.

Chandrashekaran Nair Football Stadium


The wireline telephone services are provided by BSNL, Reliance, AirTel and Tata Indicom. The main GSM networks operating in the city are BSNL CellOne, Airtel, Tata Docomo, Idea Cellular, Vodafone, Reliance and Virgin Mobile. The main CDMA providers are Reliance, MTS and Tata Indicom. The number of mobile phone connections has increased exponentially since the late 1990s. Major broadband internet services are provided by BSNL Broadband, Asianet Dataline and Siti Cable. Private providers like Reliance, Tata Communications (VSNL), Airtel and Satyam also have their presence in the city. The major dial-up internet providers are BSNL NetOne, Kerala Online and KelNet among others. Thiruvananthapuram also holds the distinction of having been the first 100% Digital SSA (Secondary Switching Area) in India.

Thiruvananthapuram city contains the largest number of theatres in Kerala.[123] There are over 18 cinema halls which screen films in Malayalam, Tamil, English and Hindi. There are also two film studios in the city—Chithranjali and Merryland. The Kinfra Film and Video Park, located near the Technopark, is one of the most advanced film and animation production centres in India. Leading firms like Prasad Labs have set up their facilities here. The International Film Festival of Kerala (IFFK) is held in November/December every year and is acknowledged as one of the leading events of its kind in India.

All India Radio has an AM (1161 MHz) and an FM (Ananthapuri FM; 101.9 MHz) station for the city. Also, it has a Short Wave ( SW ) transmitter relaying the AM programming over various frequencies, intended for listeners in far flung areas of Kerala and beyond. FM radio channels broadcast from Thiruvananthapuram are Ananthapuri FM (AIR) 101.9 MHz,[116] Gyanvani from IGNOU 105.6 MHz,[117] Big FM 92.7 MHz,[118] Club FM 94.3 MHz,[119] Radio Mirchi 98.3 MHz,[120] Red FM 93.5 MHz[121] and Radio DC(Low power CRS) 90.4 MHz.[122]

Most of the Malayalam TV channels are based in Thiruvananthapuram. The government owned Doordarshan began broadcasting from here in 1981. Asianet, the first private Malayalam channel, began its telecasts in 1991. The other channels now based in Thiruvananthapuram are Amrita TV, Kairali TV, Kairali We (Youth channel of Kairali), JaiHind TV, Asianet Plus (Youth channel of Asianet) and People (News and current affairs channel of Kairali TV). The local cable services are provided by Asianet Satellite Communications Limited, Connecttel Communications Pvt Ltd, Trivandrum Cable Network Pvt Ltd and Siti Cable and they provide a bouquet of local channels in addition to all the Indian channels. DTH services are available through Doordarshan Direct Plus, Tata Sky, SUN Direct, Big TV, Airtel digital TV, Videocon d2h and Dish TV.

Daily newspapers are available in English, Malayalam and Tamil. The English newspapers with editions from Thiruvananthapuram are The New Indian Express, The Hindu, The Deccan Chronicle and The Times of India. The major Malayalam newspapers are Mathrubhumi, Malayala Manorama, Kerala Kaumudi, Deshabhimani, Madhyamam, Janmabhumi, Chandrika, Thejas , Siraj, Kerala Kaumudi Flash, Deepika and Rashtra Deepika.


Thiruvananthapuram is a Research and Development hub in the fields of space science, information technology, bio-technology, and medicine. It is home to the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS), Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB), Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute (JNTBGRI), ER&DC – CDAC, CSIRNational Institute of Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Free Software Foundation of India (FSFI), Regional Cancer Centre (RCC), Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS), Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI), Kerala Science and Technology Museum, Priyadarsini Planetarium, The Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library, Kerala Highway Research Institute and Kerala Fisheries Research Institute. A scientific institution named National centre for molecular materials, for the research and development of biomedical devices and space electronics is to be established in Thiruvananthapuram.[114] College of Architecture Thiruvananthapuram(CAT), which specialises only on the architecture course, is another institution proposed to set up in the suburbs of the city.[115]

Science and technology

The schools in the city are classified as Aided, Unaided and Government schools.[111] The government schools are run directly by the state government and follow the syllabus prescribed by the state government. The aided schools also follow the state syllabus. In addition to this, there are five Kendriya Vidyalayas run directly by the Central government, which follow the CBSE syllabus, and private schools run by educational trusts or boards which follow CBSE and/or ICSE syllabus and/or NIOS syllabus and/or state syllabus. In 1961, the first ISC school, Loyola School, was started in the city.The school is located at Srikaryam and is affiliated to the CISCE, CBSE and SCERT and was the first in the city to introduce the ISC course with its Board in Delhi and affiliation to Cambridge University. The first International school in Kerala, The Trivandrum International School, was started in the outskirts of the city in August 2003.[112] The literacy rate in Thiruvananthapuram, according to the 2001 census, is 89.36 percent; 92.68 percent among males and 86.26 percent among females.[113]

Thiruvananthapuram is an academic hub. The University of Kerala is located here. The regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) is also situated in Thiruvananthapuram. There are many professional education colleges including fifteen engineering colleges, three medical colleges, three Ayurveda colleges, two Homeopathy colleges, six other medical related colleges, and two law colleges in the city and its suburbs.[110] The College of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram, Government Engineering College, Barton Hill, and Sree Chitra Thirunal College of Engineering are the main engineering colleges in the city. The Asian School of Business and IIITM-K are two of the management study institutions in the city, both situated inside Technopark. The Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology is situated in the city. Centre for Development Studies and Centre for Development of Imaging Technology (C-DIT) are located within city limits.

Kerala University Administrative Building


A shopping mall, Mall of Travancore (MOT), with an area of 600,000 plus sq.feet is under construction on the Chakkai Bypass. Developed by the Malabar Group, it will be the second largest mall in Kerala on completion.

Thiruvananthapuram has numerous libraries, the prominent ones being the State Central Library (Thiruvananthapuram Public library, Est. 1829),[108] the University Library, Thiruvananthapuram Children's Library, Manuscripts Library and the Centre for Development Studies Library. The British Library (Est. 1964)[109] was located very near to the Government Secretariat adjacent to the YMCA Hostel.The British Council closed it down, citing financial constraints.

The general cuisine of the people is Keralite cuisine, which is characterised by an abundance of coconut and spices. This includes predominantly vegetarian Naadan ( country ) and non vegetarian Malabar and Kuttanad recipes. Other South Indian cuisines, as well as Chinese and North Indian cuisines are popular. Arabian, Thai and branded fast food joints are also patronised.

Thiruvananthapuram appears as a laid back and quiet city to a casual observer. However there are considerable cultural activities in the city. The cultural activities are more during the festival season of PongalaAttukal , theAaraat of Padmanabha Swamy Temple, Urs at Beemapally,etc.[107] The CVN Kalari at East Fort is a well-known centre for training in Kerala's indigenous martial art—the Kalaripayattu. The Margi centre offers training in many of Kerala's traditional arts including Kathakali.

Maharaja Swathi Thirunal was a great composer and played a vital role in the development of Carnatic music.[106] There is a music college in his name in the city – Swathi Thirunal College of Music. Raja Ravi Varma was a famous painter of international renown. His contributions to Indian art are substantial. Most of his famous paintings are preserved at the Sree Chithra Art Gallery in the city. The Padmanabha Swamy Temple and the fort surrounding it, the Napier Museum and Zoo, the VJT hall are among the prominent heritage buildings in the city. The Veli lake and Shankumugham beach are home to various sculptures of the noted sculptor Kanayi Kunhiraman. Many people, including Mahatma Gandhi have admired the city's greenery.[104]

The cultural background of Thiruvananthapuram originates from the efforts of the rulers of erstwhile Travancore, who took an active interest in the development of arts and culture. Thiruvananthapuram has produced several great artists, the most famous ones being Maharaja Swathi Thirunal,[105] Irayimman Thampi and Raja Ravi Varma.

Thiruvananthapuram is a unique Indian City, where greenery and modernity co-exist.[104] Shown here is the aerial view of Kowdiar


Unemployment is a serious issue in Thiruvananthapuram. The increase in the unemployment rate was from 8.8% in 1998 to 34.3% in 2003, thus registering a 25.5% absolute and a 289.7% relative increase in five years.[100] Thiruvananthapuram taluk ranks third in Kerala with 36.3% of its population unemployed. The in-migration of the unemployed from other districts boosts this high unemployment rate.[100] Thiruvananthapuram has a high suicide rate, which went up from 17.2 per lakh in 1995 to 38.5 per lakh in 2002.[101] In 2004, the rate came down slightly to 36.6 per lakh.[102] As per 2001 census, the populace below the poverty line in the city was 11,667. A BPL survey indicated the urban poor population as 120,367. Majority of these populace lives in slums and coastal fishing areas.[103]

Hindus comprise 65% of the population, Christians are about 18% of the population, and Muslims are about 15% . The remaining 2% practise other religions. The major language spoken is Malayalam. English, Tamil, and Hindi are widely understood. There is a prominent minority of Tamil speakers and a few Tulu , Konkani and Urdu speakers.

In October 2010, the area of the city was increased from 86 wards to 100 wards[97] by adding Sreekaryam, Vattiyoorkavu, Kudappanakunnu, Vizhinjam and Kazhakuttam panchayats into the corporation.[98] The city has now an area of 214.86 km² and a population of 957,730 inhabitants with 467,739 males and 489,991 females.[99]

The city has a population of 134,752,490 according to the 2011 census,[1] and 1,687,406 in the Urban Agglomeration.[3] Within the city, the density of population is about 5,284 people per square kilometre. There are more women in Thiruvananthapuram than men; the sex ratio is 1,064 females to every 1,000 males.[1]

Religions in Thiruvananthapuram
Religion Percentage
A Busy Road in the city
Gandhi Park in East Fort


[96] In the first phase, 42 km of six-lane and four-lane dual carriage ways are being built.[95].under passes and [94]flyovers including the construction of [93] The exponential growth of the services and IT-based sectors coupled with its prominence as the state capital and tourist center has caused considerable strain on the transport infrastructure of the city. To ease the strain, several construction projects are underway and completed[92] in close proximity.Tuticorin and Kochi, Colombo It is to be built in three phases, and expected to be a key competitor in the ports business (especially for container transshipment), with the international shipping lanes between Europe and the Far East lying very close to the port, and also with major ports like [91] has begun, which is expected to be completed within one year and the work on the terminal is to begin within a year.Vizhinjam at Deep Water Container Trans-shipment Port The work on infrastructure development for the


Thiruvananthapuram is served by the ICAO: VOTV), which is the first international airport in India outside the four metropolitan cities then. It has direct connectivity to the Middle East, Singapore, Maldives and Sri Lanka and is one of the gateways to the tourism-rich state of Kerala. The airport is qualified for all-weather and night operations. One of the major advantage of the airport is the prevailing weather at the location that does not go to extremes, allowing flight operations without disruption year around.[88] The International terminal of the airport is approximately 3.7 kilometres (2.3 mi) due west and the domestic terminal is approximately 8.0 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the central business district.[89] The importance of the airport is also due to the fact that it is the southernmost airport in India and also the closest option for neighbouring countries like Maldives and Sri Lanka, and the only option to Maldives from India. Also, apart from the regular scheduled flights, charter flights, primarily carrying tourists, also serve the airport.[90]


A new suburban corridor proposed by Railways in Thiruvananthapuram – KollamHaripad/Chengannur routes for which MRVC is tasked to conduct study and submit report. Ten trains, each with 7 bogies will transport passengers back and forth between Thiruvananthapuram-Kollam-Chengannur-Harippad section. Suburban Corridor is modelled on the lines of the Mumbai Suburban Rail where around 3,000 suburban trains ply every day[87]

Sub Urban Rail

Thiruvananthapuram Monorail was proposed as a mass transit system for the city.[86] The monorail proposed was to start from Pallippuram and terminate at Neyyattinkara covering a distance of 41.8 kilometres (26.0 mi). 35 stops had been proposed with multi-storeyed parking lots in the stations.[86]


Thiruvananthapuram comes under the Southern Railway zone of the Indian Railways. There are five railway stations within the city limits including the Thiruvananthapuram central station. Thiruvananthapuram Pettah, Kochuveli and Veli stations are located towards north direction and Thiruvananthapuram Nemom is located in south direction from the central station.[82] The Central railway station is located at Thampanoor in the heart of the city, and is about 5 km from the new international air terminal and nearly 8 km from the domestic air terminal. It is the largest and busiest railway station in the state.[83] Kochuveli railway station is developed to ease congestion on central station and it act as satellite station to Thiruvananthapuram Central.[84] Some of the long distance trains from the city operates from this station. The Thiruvananthapuram Rajdhani Express connects the city to New Delhi, the capital of India. The city is well connected by rail to almost all major cities in India such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Tirunelveli and Hyderabad. Thiruvananthapuram is also the first major South Indian city on the longest train route in India, Kanyakumari to Dibrugarh.[85]

Thiruvananthapuram Central Railway Station Platform one
Thiruvananthapuram Central Railway Station is one of the busiest railway stations in south India


Interstate buses : Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation of Tirunelveli Division ply buses between Nagercoil and Thiruvananthpuram and many other parts of Kanyakumari district. It has a depot of SETC which operates long distance services towards Chennai and Bangalore via Nagercoil, Madurai. Also, KSRTC, private bus operators and the Karnataka SRTC ply services to destinations in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Hyderabad.

There are bus services operated by private operators and provides access within city limits and beyond. The city services of KSRTC operate from six depots namely, the City depot, Vikas Bhavan, Peroorkada, Pappanamcode, Kaniyapuram and Vellanad.[81] These services were revamped in 2005 with the introduction of modern buses and electronic ticketing mechanisms. The Central bus station is in Thampanoor, opposite Thiruvananthapuram Central Station. It connects Thiruvananthapuram with other parts of Kerala as well as other states. The central city bus terminal is 1 km away at East Fort (Kizhakke kotta), near the Padmanabha Swamy temple.

Within the city, city buses, taxis and autorickshaws provide transportation. Scooters, motorcycles and cars are the favoured means of personal transportation. The intra-city public transport is dominated by the state-owned KSRTC (Kerala State Road Transport Corporation).[80]

The intra-city public transport in the city is dominated by the state-owned KSRTC, though there are significant numbers of private buses plying within the city limits.

The Thiruvananthpuram Road Development Company Limited is an SPV to develop the road network in Thiruvananthapuram city.[78] It is the first intra-city project in the country.[79]

The NH-66, which runs from Panvel to Kanyakumari connects the city to Kochi, Kozhikode and Mangalore. The Main Central Road (MC Road) which is an arterial State Highway in Kerala and designated as SH 1 starts from Kesavadasapuram in the city.

National Highway NH66 in Kesavadasapuram, Thiruvananthapuram
Kowdiar road, also known as the royal road or "Raja Veedhi", as it leads to the Kowdiar Palace of the Royal family of Travancore
An AC KSRTC Volvo bus in Thiruvananthapuram



Kanyakumari, Thiruvattar, Padmanabhapuram Palace and Tirpparappu waterfalls, are also near the city, in the adjoining Kanyakumari District (Nagercoil), in the state of Tamil Nadu.
The eponymous Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple circled by the East Fort is at the center of a busy shopping hub of the city. The temple attracts millions of visitors every year. Visitors are required to adhere to special dress code before entering the temple. Recent court battle challenges the custodianship of the Royal family over the temple. The controversy centres on the estimated properties of over $20 billion[77] housed in the vaults of the temple.

Thiruvananthapuram is also a tourist destination for both domestic and international tourists. There are many tourist destinations in or near the city including Kovalam beach, Sanghumukham Beach, Napier museum and Zoo (Yann Martel wrote his book Life of PI after studying a disabled lion, Simba for months together), Agasthyarkoodam peak, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary and Neyyar Dam, Kuthira Malika palace, Sree Padmanabha Swamy temple, Ponmudi, Poovar, Varkala Cliffs and beaches and many others.

Kovalam Beach with Kovalam lighthouse in the background


The water supply schemes cover 100% within the city limits. It is 84% of the urban and 69% of the rural population, when the district is considered. Peppara and Aruvikkara dams are the main sources of water for distribution in the capital city. The new project plan for improving the water supply with Japanese aid covers Thiruvananthapuram city and six suburban panchayats having urban characteristics.[75] Thiruvananthapuram is the only city in the state to have a scientific sewage treatment facility . The entire sewage is disposed off at the Muttathara Sewage Treatment Plant, which can handle 107 million litres a day (mld). However, only 32 mld of sewage is currently disposed off at the plant. Sewage Plant at Muttathara is also India’s largest and Kerala’s first modern sewage treatment plant. The sewerage system in the city was implemented at the time of the Travancore Kingdom, and modernised in 1938. This scheme for the disposal of sullage and sewage is an underground system. The whole system is controlled by Kerala Water Authority now. The city area is divided into seven blocks for the execution of the sewerage system, two commissioned in the 1990s and two after 2000. The sewerage used to be pumped to a stilling chamber at the Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP) located at Valiyathura, and was disposed through sewage farming. The Dairy Development Department maintains this sewage farm, and fodder cultivation is done here. There is no revenue generation from this scheme, and the sewerage system in the city is a service provided to the residents. However, now the sewage is treated at the Muttathara STP.[76]

The city is fully electrified by Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB). The district is divided into three circles: Transmission circle, Thiruvananthapuram city and Kattakkada. Domestic consumers account for 43% of the total power consumption, or 90 million units per month. Thiruvananthapuram district has one 220 kV, nine 110 kV and six 66 kV electrical substations. A 400 kV substation has just been commissioned by the Power Grid Corporation and will ensure high-quality power supply to the city.[75]

Kowdiar, one of the important streets in the city


The city comes under the Thiruvananthapuram Lok Sabha constituency. The city corporation area contributes to four legislative assembly seats namely Kazhakuttam, Vattiyoorkavu, Thiruvananthapuram, and Nemom.[73] The city police is headed by a Police Commissioner, an officer of Deputy Inspector General rank in the Indian Police Service. The city is divided into three police sub-divisions headed by Assistant Commissioners. There are also two traffic sub-divisions. A women's cell and a narcotics control cell also operate in the city. The other units of Thiruvananthapuram City Police include Crime Detachment, City Special Branch, Dog Squad, Mounted Police, District Crime Records Bureau, Foreigners Registration Office (FRO), Tourist Police and District Armed Reserve.[74] There are two state Armed Police Battalions and a unit of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) based in Thiruvananthapuram. The CRPF has a Group Headquarters (GHQ) located at Pallipuram. There is also a large army cantonment in Pangode where some regiments of the Indian Army are based.

Thiruvananthapuram City officials
K. Chandrika[70]
Deputy Mayor
G. Happikumar[70]
Corporation Secretary
Biju K IAS[71]
Commissioner of Police
H. Venkitesh[72]
[69] (TRIDA) and Thiruvananthapuram Road Development Company Limited (TRDCL).Thiruvananthapuram Development Authority The city council is democratically elected and comprises 100 members representing the different city wards. Several agencies work under or in partnership with the Corporation including the [68] which headed by the Mayor and is responsible for the overall, supervision and control of the administrative functions of the Municipal Corporation.Thiruvananthapuram CorporationThe city is administered by the

The state legislative assembly and Secretariat are located here as Thiruvananthapuram is the capital of Kerala. The city is also the headquarters of the Thiruvananthapuram district. The foreign missions in the city are the Consulate of Maldives[65] and Honorary Consulate of Russia.[66]
There is also a recent plea to reinstate a bench of the Kerala High Court in the city which was earlier cancelled in 1957 due to setting up of the High Court of Kerala at Ernakulam.[67]

Secretariat of the Government of Kerala
Kerala Legislative Assembly Building

Administration and law

Commercial activity is low mainly due to the underdevelopment of ports. However, this is expected to change with the construction of the BrahMos Aerospace, Chithranjali Film Complex, Kinfra Apparel Park, Kinfra Film and Video Park, Kerala Hitech Industries (KELTECH), Kerala Automobiles Limited and the English Indian Clays Ltd.

There are around 20 government owned and 60 privately owned medium and large-scale industrial units in Thiruvanathapuram. The major employers are the ISRO LPSC, Travancore Titanium and Hindustan Latex, all government owned. There are also about 30,000 small scale industrial units employing around 115,000 people. Traditional industries include handloom and coir.[62]

Tourism has also contributed heavily to the economy of Thiruvananthapuram.[59][60] A large number of foreign tourists visit the city every year.[61]

[58].Technocity, 5 km north from the main campus as Pallippuram As Phase IV expansion, Technopark is developing 450 acres of land in [57]). of built-up space2 Level 4 assessed Technology Park which spreads over 330 acres, and about 4,000,000 sq ft (370,000 mCMMI This is the first [40] The park has around 285 companies employing over 40,000 professionals.[56] etc.SunTec Business Solutions, NeST Software, IBS Software Services, Tata Elxsi, UST Global, RR Donnelley, Allianz Cornhill, Ernst & Young Global Shared Services Center, Visual Graphics Computing Services, Capgemini, TCS, ITC Infotech, Infosys, Oracle Corporation Technopark is home to several companies including [55][41].human talent infrastructure, and second in terms of availability of ITES/IT in 1995, Thiruvananthapuram has steadily grown into a competitive IT centre. The city was rated as the best 2nd tier metro with Technopark Since the establishment of [10][9][8]The city contributes 80% of software exports from the state, and was selected as the fourth hottest IT destination in India.
A building in the Infosys-Thiruvananthapuram campus

Thiruvananthapuram was listed as one of the top 10 cites in India on Vibrancy Index and Consumption Index by a study conducted by global [52] The opening of many private television channels in the state made Thiruvananthapuram the home of several studios and related industries. India's first animation park Kinfra Film and Video Park is situated here.[53][54]

The economy of Thiruvananthapuram city was earlier based on the tertiary sector with about 60% of the workforce being employed as government servants. Large-scale industrial establishments are low compared to other south Indian state capitals like Bangalore and Chennai. Currently the economy is growing with the contributions from more professionals in the field of IT.

Professionals at work in the Technopark campus
The Bhavani building at Technopark


Climate data for Thiruvananthapuram City (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.5
Average high °C (°F) 32.0
Average low °C (°F) 22.1
Record low °C (°F) 16.4
Precipitation mm (inches) 15.9
Avg. precipitation days 1.0 1.7 2.3 6.5 9.7 16.6 13.4 10.3 8.7 11.7 9.2 4.2 95.4
% humidity 69 70 72 77 79 85 84 83 82 83 82 74 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 262.8 242.3 250.7 214.0 197.3 133.5 149.7 166.6 173.4 170.8 166.3 216.6 2,344
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[49][50]
Source #2: NOAA (sun and humidity, 1971–1990) [51]

The city has a climate that borders between a tropical savanna climate and a tropical monsoon climate. As a result it does not experience distinct seasons. The mean maximum temperature 34 °C and the mean minimum temperature is 21 °C.The humidity is high and rises to about 90% during the monsoon season.[48] Thiruvananthapuram is the first city along the path of the south-west monsoons and gets its first showers in early June. The city gets heavy rainfall of around 1700 mm per year. The city also gets rain from the receding north-east monsoons which hit the city by October. The dry season sets in by December. December, January and February are the coldest months while March, April and May are the hottest. The lowest temperature in the city core recorded during winter was 16.4 °C on, and the highest temperature recorded in summer is 38.0 °C.[49]


Thiruvananthapuram lies on the shores of Karamana and Killi rivers. Vellayani, Thiruvallam and Aakulam backwaters lies in the city.[47]

Thiruvananthapuram is built on seven hills[42] by the sea shore and is located at on the west coast, near the southern tip of mainland India.[43] The city situated on the west coast of India, and is bounded by Laccadive Sea to its west and the Western Ghats to its east. The city spans an area of 214.86 km2 (82.96 sq mi)[44] and the greater metropolitan area spans an area of 250 km2 (96.53 sq mi). The average elevation of the city is 16 ft (4.9 m) above sea level.[45] The Geological Survey of India has identified Thiruvananthapuram as a moderately earthquake-prone urban centre and categorised the city in the Seismic III Zone.[46]

Geography and climate

A major milestone in the city's recent history was the establishment of Technopark—India's first IT park—in 1995.[38] Technopark has developed into the largest IT park in India in geographical area,[39] employing around 40,000 people in 300 companies.[40] This placed Thiruvananthapuram on the IT map of India.[41]


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