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Saadians

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Saadians

For other uses, see Saadi (disambiguation).
Saadi dynasty of Morocco
السعديون (ar)
Ruling dynasty of Morocco

(1509) 1554 – 1659

Flag

Capital Marrakech
Religion Sunni Islam
Government 1509-1554 : Principality
1554-1659 : Sultanate
Sultan
 -  1509-1517 Abu Abdallah, Prince of Tagmadert
 -  1544-1557 Mohammed Sheikh, first Sultan (1554)
 -  1655-1659 Ahmad al-Abbas, last Sultan
History
 -  Established 1554
 -  Disestablished 1659
Part of a series on the
History of Morocco
Morocco portal

The Saadi dynasty or Saadian dynasty (Arabic: سعديون), original name Bani Zaydan, were a dynasty of Arab descent that ruled Morocco from 1554 to 1659.

From 1509 to 1554 they had ruled only in the south of Morocco. While still recognizing the Wattasids as Sultans until 1528, Saadian's growing power led the Wattasids to attack them and, after an indecisive battle, to recognize their rule over southern Morocco[2] through the Treaty of Tadla.

Their reign over Morocco began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh in 1554, when he vanquished the last Wattasids at the Battle of Tadla. The Saadian rule ended in 1659 with the end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad el Abbas

Origins

The Saadī family claimed descent from Muhammad through the line of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima Zahra (Muhammad's daughter). The Saadi came from Tagmadert in the valley of the Draa River. The family's village of origin in the Draa was Tidzi (a qsar, some 10 km north of Zagora).[3] They claimed sharifian origins through an ancestor from Yanbu and rendered Sufism respectable in Morocco. The name Saadi or Saadian derives from "sa'ada" meaning happiness or salvation. Others think it derives from the name Bani Zaydan or that it was given to the Bani Zaydan (shurafa of Tagmadert) by later generations and rivals for power, who tried to deny their Hassanid descent by claiming that they came from the family of Halimah Saadiyya, Muhammad's wet nurse.[4] The most famous sultan of the Saadi was Ahmad al-Mansur (1578–1603), builder of the El Badi Palace in Marrakech and contemporary of Elizabeth I. One of their most important achievements was defeating the Portuguese at the Battle of Ksar El Kebir and defending the country against the Ottomans. Before they conquered Marrakech, they had Taroudant as their capital city.

The Saadian Tombs were rediscovered in 1917 and can be seen in Marrakech.

Chronology

  • 1509 : establishment of the Saadian Principality in Tagmadert ;
  • 1511 : the Saadians receive the support of the Souss ;
  • 1524 : the Saadians receive the support of the Hintata tribes, who control Marrakech ;
  • 1527 : the Wattasids recognize the Saadian rule of southern Morocco through the Treaty of Tadla ;
  • 1541 : the saadian army expels the Portuguese from Agadir, Azamor, Azafi and Arzila ;
  • 1554 : Mohammed ash-Sheikh overthrows Ahmad el Abbas, the last wattasid Sultan ;
  • 1561–1567 : annexation of the principalities of Tetouan, Chefchaouen and Debdou ;
  • 1578 : Battle of Alcácer Quibir : Moroccan victory over the Portuguese army ;
  • 1581 : conquest of the Touat ;
  • 1591 : battle of Tondibi, conquest of the Songhai Empire ;
  • 1603–1627 : civil war after the death of Ahmad al-Mansur, opposing three pretenders : Abou Fares Abdallah, Abou Fares Abdallah and Mohammed esh Sheikh el Mamun ; beginning of the decline of the Saadi Empire ;
  • 1628 : reunification of Fes and Marrakech, but Saadians didn't retrieve the control over many territories : Rabat, Salé and Tetouan ruled by Andalusis, Tafilalet by the Alaouites, Oujda by the Ottomans and many other territories lost to warlords, Zaouias leaders and refractory tribes ; they lost gradually the control over the territories that remained under their rule until 1659, when they disappeared from the Moroccan political and military scenes.

Rulers

1509–1554 : Saadian princes of Tagmadert

1554–1659 : Saadian sultans of Morocco

1603–1627 : Succession war

1627–1659 : Reunified rule

Timeline

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 from:1554 till: 1557 color:a text:"Mohammed ash-Sheikh"
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See also

References

Further reading

  • Rosander, E. Evers and Westerlund, David (1997). African Islam and Islam in Africa: Encounters Between Sufis and Islamists. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1-85065-282-1
  • History of Morocco
  • Morocco in the Sixteenth Century. Problems and Patterns in African Foreign Policy by Dahiru Yahya, Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines, Vol. 18, No. 1 (1984), pp. 252–253
Royal house
House of Banu Zaydan
Preceded by
Wattasid dynasty
Ruling house of Morocco
1554 – 1659
Succeeded by
Alaouite dynasty
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