World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Rothko Chapel

Rothko Chapel
Rothko Chapel is located in Texas
Rothko Chapel
Location 1409 Sul Ross Ave., Houston, Texas
Area less than one acre
Built 1971
Architect Rothko, Mark; Johnson, Philip, et al.
Architectural style Modern Movement, New Formalist
Governing body Private
NRHP Reference #


Added to NRHP August 16, 2000

The Rothko Chapel is a non-denominational chapel in Houston, Texas, founded by John and Dominique de Menil. The interior serves not only as a chapel, but also as a major work of modern art. On its walls are fourteen black but color hued paintings by Mark Rothko. The shape of the building, an octagon inscribed in a Greek cross, and the design of the chapel was largely influenced by the artist.

Susan J. Barnes states "The Rothko Chapel...became the world's first broadly ecumenical center, a holy place open to all religions and belonging to none. It became a center for international cultural, religious, and philosophical exchanges, for colloquia and performances. And it became a place of private prayer for individuals of all faiths" [2]

On September 16, 2000, the Rothko Chapel was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.


  • History 1
  • Architecture 2
  • Works of art 3
    • Paintings 3.1
    • Sculpture 3.2
    • Music 3.3
  • Recognition 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7


In 1964 Rothko was commissioned by John and Dominique de Menil (also founders of the nearby Menil Collection) to create a meditative space filled with his paintings. The works are site-specific, one of the requirements of the program. As Rothko was given creative license on the design of the structure, he clashed with the project's original architect, Philip Johnson over the plans for the chapel. The plans went through several revisions and architects. Rothko continued to work first with Howard Barnstone and then with Eugene Aubry, but ultimately he did not live to see the chapel's completion in 1971. After a long struggle with depression, Rothko committed suicide in his New York studio on February 25, 1970.

From 1973 onward, the Rothko Chapel doubled as a center for colloquiums aimed at fostering mutual understanding on issues affecting justice and freedom throughout the world. The first colloquium drew scholars from Lebanon, Iran, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Japan, Italy, the United States and Canada.[3] In 1981, it initiated “The Rothko Chapel Awards to Commitment to Truth and Freedom." In 1986, a second award was established to honor and emulate the spirit of Jimmy Carter. Nelson Mandela was the keynote speaker and received the special Rothko Chapel award.[3]

In early 1999 the Rothko Chapel closed for a major renovation. The paintings had been exhibiting premature signs of age, and the largest could not be removed for treatment. In 2000, the chapel reopened after an 18-month, $1.8 million renovation, with the artist's paintings newly restored.[4]


The chapel is an octagonal brick building with gray or rose stucco walls and a baffled skylight.[5] It serves as a place of meditation as well as a meeting hall and is furnished with eight simple, moveable benches for meditative seating; more are provided to accommodate the audience for special events. Holy Books from several religions are available. About 55,000 people visit the chapel each year.[6]

Works of art

Broken Obelisk in front of the Rothko Chapel

The chapel is associated with several works of art other than the building itself, in the fields of painting, sculpture, and music.


Fourteen of Rothko's paintings are displayed in the chapel. Three walls display triptychs, while the other five walls display single paintings. Beginning in 1964, Rothko began painting a series of black paintings, which incorporated other dark hues and texture effects. A typical question raised by visitors viewing the massive black canvases which adorn the walls of the chapel includes some variant of: "Where are the paintings?"

The de Menils offered Rothko a commission for the chapel in 1964. From the fall of 1964 through the spring of 1967, he painted the fourteen large paintings and four alternates, which incorporated many of the characteristics of the earlier 1964 black paintings.[7]


A distinctive sculpture by Barnett Newman, Broken Obelisk, 1963–1967, stands in front of the chapel. The sculpture sits in a reflecting pool designed by Philip Johnson and it is dedicated to the late Martin Luther King, Jr. The sculpture originally stood in Washington, D.C. and was offered in 1969 by the de Menils to the city of Houston as a memorial to Martin Luther King, Jr. to stand in front of City Hall. Houston turned down the gift and the de Menils then donated the sculpture and the Rothko paintings to start the Rothko Chapel.[8]


One of Morton Feldman's best known pieces of music was inspired by and written to be performed in the chapel — it too is called Rothko Chapel (1971). The musician Peter Gabriel named one of his songs Fourteen Black Paintings after his experience in the chapel.[9] Independent singer-songwriter David Dondero also has an ode to the site titled Rothko Chapel (2007).


The Chapel has received numerous awards, including the Peace Award from The Houston Baha’í Community (1998), a Community Award from the Museum District Business Alliance (2000), The James L. Tucker Interfaith Award from Interfaith Ministries (2004), an Urban Greenery Award from The Park People (2005), and recognitions from the Houston Peace and Justice Center (2008).[10]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Quote on p. 108, reprinted in the NRHP Nomination form.
  3. ^ a b John Russell (January 1, 1998), Dominique de Menil, 89, Dies; Collector and Philanthropist New York Times.
  4. ^ Shaila K. Dewan (June 15, 2000), Restoring Rothko's Chapel and His Vision New York Times.
  5. ^ NRHP Nomination form, available from the Texas Historic Sites Atlas a searchable database published by the Texas Historical Commission, search "Rothko Chapel," accessed March 2, 2011.
  6. ^
  7. ^ In the Tower: Mark Rothko, exhibition catalog, National Gallery of Art, Washington, February 21, 2010–January 2, 2011. Accessed March 2, 2011.
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ Rothko Chapel Celebrates 40 Years, 1971–2011 Rothko Chapel, Houston.

External links

  • Official website
  • Menil Collection
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.