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Old Gujarati language

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Title: Old Gujarati language  
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Old Gujarati language

Old Gujarati
Era Developed into Middle Gujarati by the 16th century and the Rajasthani languages
Early forms
Gurjar Apabhraṃśa
  • Old Gujarati
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None

Old Gujarātī (જૂની ગુજરાતી; also called ગુજરાતી ભાખા Gujarātī bhākhā or ગુર્જર અપભ્રંશ Gurjar apabhraṃśa, 1100–1500 CE), the ancestor of modern Gujarati and Rajasthani,[2] was spoken by the Gurjars, who were residing and ruling in Gujarat, Punjab, Rajputana and central India.[3][4] The language was used as literary language as early as the 12th century. Texts of this era display characteristic Gujarati features such as direct/oblique noun forms, postpositions, and auxiliary verbs.[5] It had three genders as Gujarati does today, and by around the time of 1300 CE a fairly standardized form of this language emerged. While generally known as Old Gujarati, some scholars prefer the name of Old Western Rajasthani, based on the argument that Gujarati and Rajasthani were not yet distinct. Factoring into this preference was the belief that modern Rajasthani sporadically expressed a neuter gender, based on the incorrect conclusion that the [ũ] that came to be pronounced in some areas for masculine [o] after a nasal consonant was analogous to Gujarati's neuter [ũ].[6] A formal grammar of the precursor to this language, Prakrita Vyakarana, was written by Jain monk and eminent scholar Hemachandra Suri in the reign of Solanki king Siddharaj Jayasinh of Anhilwara (Patan).[7]

Major works were written in various genres, for the most part in verse form, such as:[8]

  • rāsa, predominantly didactic narrative, of which the earliest known is Śālibhadrasūri's Bhārateśvarabāhubali (1185).
  • phāgu, in which springtime is celebrated, of which the earliest is Jinapadmasūri's Sirithūlibadda (c. 1335). The most famous is the Vasantavilāsa, of unknown scholarship, which is undeterminedly dated to somewhere in 14th or 15th century, or possibly earlier.
  • bārmāsī, describing natural beauty during each of the twelve months.
  • ākhyāna, in which sections are each in a single metre.

Narsinh Mehta (c. 1414–1480) is traditionally viewed as the father of modern Gujarati poetry. By virtue of its early age and good editing, an important prose work is the 14th-century commentary of Taruṇaprabha, the Ṣaḍāvaśyakabālabodhavr̥tti.[8]

References

  1. ^ Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen SprachenErnst Kausen, 2006. (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  2. ^ Dalby 1998, p. 237
  3. ^ Ajay Mitra Shastri; R. K. Sharma, Devendra Handa (2005), Revealing India's past: recent trends in art and archaeology, Aryan Books International, p. 227,  
  4. ^ K. Ayyappapanicker (1997), Medieval Indian literature: an anthology, Volume 3, Sahitya Akademi, p. 91,  
  5. ^ Mistry 2003, p. 115
  6. ^ Smith, J.D. (2001) "Rajasthani." Facts about the world's languages: An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Ed. Jane Garry, and Carl Rubino: New England Publishing Associates. pp. 591-593.
  7. ^ Rita Kothari (8 April 2014). Translating India. Routledge. pp. 73–74.  
  8. ^ a b Cardona & Suthar 2003, p. 661
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