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Non-Hispanic whites

Non-Hispanic whites
White, not Hispanic or Latino
Total population
195,483,640 (2012 ACS)
62.1% of the United States population
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the United States
Languages
Predominantly American English with local minorities who speak American French (Louisiana, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire), Pennsylvania German language (Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana), and immigrant languages (esp. Russian, Arabic, Italian, Polish, and Greek[1])
Religion
Mostly Christianity; minorities practice Judaism, and other faiths or are nonreligious

Non-Hispanic whites or white, not Hispanic or Latino are people in the United States, as defined by the Census Bureau, who are of the white race and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity.[2][3] Hence the designation is exclusive in the sense that it defines who is not included as opposed to who is. Non-Hispanic whites are a subset of white Americans, the other being white Hispanic and Latino Americans. In one study of self-identified European Americans,[4] more than half had less than 95% European ancestry and in another study, thirty per cent of non-Hispanic European Americans, on average, had some form of sub-Saharan African ancestry.[5]

Although generally all nations in Europe have contributed to the Non-Hispanic white population through emigration to Northern America in the last few centuries, the vast majority of Non-Hispanic whites trace their origins to Northwestern Europe while the other major source originates in Southern Italy, with German, Irish, and English background being most common. Persons of Portuguese descent are also considered Non-Hispanic whites, although the census is considering changing this status officially. [1]

In the U.S., this population was first derived from British and French colonization, as well as settlement by other Europeans, such as the Germans and Dutch that began in the 17th century (see History of the United States). Continued growth since the early 1800s is attributed to sustained very high birth rates alongside relatively low death rates among settlers and natives alike as well as periodically massive immigration from European countries, especially Germany, Ireland, England, Italy, Sweden, and Norway, as well as Poland, Russia, and many more countries. In 2011, for the first time in U.S. history, Non-Hispanic whites accounted for under half of the births in U.S. - with 49.6 percent of total births.[6] At 197.2 million in 2012, Non-Hispanic whites compose 62.8% of the total population of United States.[6][7]

Trends

The Non-Hispanic white population in the United States has been declining since 1940s as a percentage of the total US population due to a number of factors:

1. Lower birth rates. Non-Hispanic whites are having fewer children relative to other groups. Preliminary 2012 data show that non-Hispanic whites have a total fertility rate of 1.76 children per woman, compared to 1.90 for non-Hispanic blacks, 2.19 for Hispanics, and 1.77 for Asians.[8] Since 1990, rates for other races have been falling while the non-Hispanic white rate has been more or less stable, but the two largest groups, Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks, remain higher.[9] Since 1997, Asian fertility has been lower than that of non-Hispanic whites except during a Year of the Dragon (2000 and 2012), but the Asian population structure has relatively more women of childbearing age and fewer elderly than the white population does, leading to Asians having a higher crude birth rate and lower crude death rate than whites.

2. Immigration. The USA takes more immigrants than the rest of the world combined with the vast majority coming from countries where the population is of non-white and/or Hispanic origin. Immigration to the USA from European countries has been in a steady decline since WWII averaging 56% of all immigrants in the 50s and declining to 35% of all immigrants in the 60s, 20% in the 70s, 11% in the 80s, 14% in the 90s, and 13% in the 00s. In 2009, approximately 90% of all immigrants came from non-European countries.[10] The U.S. does get a small number of non-Hispanic white immigrants, mainly from countries such as Brazil, Canada, Poland, Russia, and the U.K., as well as Egypt and Iran, as Middle Easterners are also counted as "non-Hispanic white" by the government.[11]

3. Intermarriage. The USA is seeing an unprecedented increase in intermarriage between the various racial and ethnic groups. In 2008, a record 14.6% of all new marriages in the United States were between spouses of a different race or ethnicity from one another. 9% of non-Hispanic whites who married in 2008 married either a non-white or Hispanic. Among all newlyweds in 2008, intermarried pairings were primarily white-Hispanic of any race (41%) as compared to white-Asian (15%), white-black (11%), and other combinations (33%). Other combinations consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and American Indians.[12] The children of such unions would not generally be classified as white Non-Hispanic (although note that one self-identifies their racial and/or ethnic category).

4. Methodology. In the 2000 Census, people were allowed to check more than one race in addition to choosing "Hispanic." There was strong opposition to this from some civil rights activists who feared that this would reduce the size of various racial minorities. The government responded by counting those who are white and of one minority race or ethnicity as minorities for the purposes of civil-rights monitoring and enforcement. Hence one could be 1/8th Hispanic or 1/8th black and still be counted as a minority.[13]

5. Attrition. Minority populations are younger than non-Hispanic whites. The national median age in 2011 was 37.3 with non-Hispanic whites having the oldest median age (42.3) while Hispanics have the youngest (27.6). Non-Hispanic blacks (32.9) and non-Hispanic Asians (35.9) also are younger than whites.[14] In 2013, the Census Bureau reported that for the first time, due to the more advanced age profile of the non-Hispanic white population, non-Hispanic whites died at a faster rate than non-Hispanic white births.[15]

Although non-Hispanic whites are declining as a percentage, in actual numbers they have still been growing. From 2000 - 2010 the non-Hispanic white population grew from 194,552,774 to 196,817,552 - A growth of 1.2% over the 10-year period, due to residual population momentum.[16]

Population by state or territory

White Non-Hispanic population by state or territory (1990–2012)[7][17]
State/Territory Pop 1990 % pop
1990
Pop 2000 % pop
2000
Pop 2010 % pop
2010
Pop 2012 % pop
2012
% growth
2000-2012
% pop
1990-2012
Alabama 2,960,167 73.3% 3,125,819 70.3% 3,204,402 67.0% 3,212,468 66.6% +2.8% -6.7%
Alaska 406,722 73.9% 423,788 67.6% 455,320 64.1% 460,453 63.0% +8.7% -10.9%
Arizona 2,626,185 71.7% 3,274,258 63.8% 3,695,647 57.8% 3,730,370 56.9% +13.9% -14.8%
Arkansas 1,933,082 82.2% 2,100,135 78.6% 2,173,469 74.5% 2,179,168 73.9% +3.8% -8.3%
California 17,029,126 57.2% 15,816,790 46.7% 14,956,253 40.1% 14,904,055 39.2% -5.8% -18.0%
Colorado 2,658,945 80.7% 3,202,880 74.5% 3,520,793 70.0% 3,599,838 69.4% +12.4% -11.3%
Connecticut 2,754,184 83.8% 2,638,845 77.5% 2,546,262 71.2% 2,512,773 70.0% -4.8% -13.8%
Delaware 528,092 79.3% 567,973 72.5% 586,752 65.3% 589,642 64.3% +3.8% -15.0%
District of Columbia 166,131 27.4% 159,178 27.8% 209,464 34.8% 222,975 35.3% +40.1% +7.9%
Florida 9,475,326 73.2% 10,458,509 65.4% 10,884,722 57.9% 10,966,711 56.8% +4.9% -16.4%
Georgia 4,543,425 70.1% 5,128,661 62.6% 5,413,920 55.9% 5,460,416 55.0% +6.5% -15.1%
Hawaii 347,644 31.4% 277,091 22.9% 309,343 22.7% 317,032 22.8% +14.4% -8.6%
Idaho 928,661 92.2% 1,139,291 88.0% 1,316,243 84.0% 1,330,942 83.4% +16.8% -8.8%
Illinois 8,550,208 74.8% 8,424,140 67.8% 8,167,753 63.7% 8,093,687 62.9% -3.9% -11.9%
Indiana 4,965,242 89.6% 5,219,373 85.8% 5,286,453 81.5% 5,289,249 80.9% +1.3% -8.7%
Iowa 2,663,840 95.9% 2,710,344 92.6% 2,701,123 88.7% 2,705,704 88.0% -0.2% -7.9%
Kansas 2,190,524 88.4% 2,233,997 83.1% 2,230,539 78.2% 2,234,826 77.4% 0.0% -11.0%
Kentucky 3,378,022 91.7% 3,608,013 89.3% 3,745,655 86.3% 3,760,302 85.8% +4.2% -5.9%
Louisiana 2,776,022 65.8% 2,794,391 62.5% 2,734,884 60.3% 2,748,748 59.7% -1.6% -6.1%
Maine 1,203,357 98.0% 1,230,297 96.5% 1,254,297 94.4% 1,250,688 94.1% +1.7% -3.9%
Maryland 3,326,109 69.6% 3,286,547 62.1% 3,157,958 54.7% 3,166,263 53.8% -3.7% -15.8%
Massachusetts 5,280,292 87.8% 5,198,359 81.9% 4,984,800 76.1% 5,003,798 75.3% -3.7% -12.6%
Michigan 7,649,951 82.3% 7,806,691 78.6% 7,569,939 76.6% 7,523,647 76.1% -3.6% -6.2%
Minnesota 4,101,266 93.7% 4,337,143 88.2% 4,405,142 83.1% 4,424,944 82.3% +2.0% -11.4%
Mississippi 1,624,198 63.1% 1,727,908 60.7% 1,722,287 58.0% 1,717,214 57.5% -0.6% -5.6%
Missouri 4,448,465 86.9% 4,686,474 83.8% 4,850,748 81.0% 4,848,758 80.5% +3.5% -6.4%
Montana 733,878 91.8% 807,823 89.5% 868,628 87.8% 876,782 87.2% +8.5% -4.6%
Nebraska 1,460,095 92.5% 1,494,494 87.3% 1,499,753 82.1% 1,509,066 81.3% +1.0% -11.2%
Nevada 946,357 78.7% 1,303,001 65.2% 1,462,081 54.1% 1,455,200 52.7% +11.7% -26.0%
New Hampshire 1,079,484 97.3% 1,175,252 95.1% 1,215,050 92.3% 1,212,389 91.8% +3.2% -5.5%
New Jersey 5,718,966 74.0% 5,557,209 66.0% 5,214,878 59.3% 5,134,994 57.9% -7.6% -16.1%
New Mexico 764,164 50.4% 813,495 44.7% 833,810 40.5% 827,066 39.7% +1.7% -10.7%
New York 12,460,189 69.3% 11,760,981 62.0% 11,304,247 58.3% 11,227,534 57.4% -4.5% -11.9%
North Carolina 4,971,127 75.0% 5,647,155 70.2% 6,223,995 65.3% 6,292,533 64.5% +11.4% -10.5%
North Dakota 601,592 94.2% 589,149 91.7% 598,007 88.9% 616,194 88.1% +4.6% -6.1%
Ohio 9,444,622 87.1% 9,538,111 84.0% 9,359,263 81.1% 9,309,291 80.6% -2.4% -6.5%
Oklahoma 2,547,588 81.0% 2,556,368 74.1% 2,575,381 68.7% 2,585,779 67.8% +1.2% -13.2%
Oregon 2,579,732 90.8% 2,857,616 83.5% 3,005,848 78.5% 3,026,649 77.6% +5.9% -13.2%
Pennsylvania 10,422,058 87.7% 10,322,455 84.1% 10,094,652 79.5% 10,035,953 78.6% -2.8% -9.1%
Rhode Island 896,109 89.3% 858,433 81.9% 803,685 76.4% 791,560 75.4% -7.8% -13.9%
South Carolina 2,390,056 68.5% 2,652,291 66.1% 2,962,740 64.1% 3,016,843 63.9% +13.7% -4.6%
South Dakota 634,788 91.2% 664,585 88.0% 689,502 84.7% 698,504 83.8% +5.1% -7.4%
Tennessee 4,027,631 82.6% 4,505,930 79.2% 4,800,782 75.6% 4,840,886 75.0% +7.4% -7.6%
Texas 10,291,680 60.6% 10,933,313 52.4% 11,397,345 45.3% 11,554,528 44.3% +5.7% -16.3%
Utah 1,571,254 91.2% 1,904,265 85.3% 2,221,719 80.4% 2,278,904 79.8% +19.7% -11.4%
Vermont 552,184 98.1% 585,431 96.2% 590,223 94.3% 588,138 94.0% +0.5% -4.3%
Virginia 4,701,650 76.0% 4,965,637 70.2% 5,186,450 64.8% 5,234,502 63.9% +5.4% -12.1%
Washington 4,221,622 86.7% 4,652,490 78.9% 4,876,804 72.5% 4,927,042 71.4% +5.9% -15.3%
West Virginia 1,718,896 95.8% 1,709,966 94.6% 1,726,256 93.2% 1,721,901 92.8% +0.7% -3.0%
Wisconsin 4,464,677 91.3% 4,681,630 87.3% 4,738,411 83.3% 4,738,842 82.8% +1.2% -8.5%
Wyoming 412,711 91.0% 438,799 88.9% 483,874 85.9% 487,672 84.6% +11.1% -6.4%
American Samoa 682 1.2% 611 1.1% -10.4%
Guam 10,666 6.9% 11,001 6.9% +3.1%
Northern Mariana Islands 1,274 1.8% 916 1.7% -28.1%
Puerto Rico 33,966 0.9% 26,946 0.7% 23,542 0.6% -30.7%
U.S. Virgin Islands 8,580 7.9% 3,830 3.6% -55.3%
United States of America 188,128,296 75.6% 194,552,774 69.1% 196,817,552 63.7% 197,243,423 62.8% +1.4% –11.9%

In 2012, in 37 out of the 50 U.S. states non-Hispanic whites made up a greater percentage of the state's population than the U.S. overall share of 62.8%; however, the 13 states with greater shares of non-whites include the four most populous states (California, Texas, New York, and Florida). Also, note that while the total non-Hispanic white population has grown since 2000 in 36 out of the 50 states, the relative share of non-Hispanic whites in the overall state population has declined in all 50 states during that same time period.

As of 2012, four states are majority-minority: Hawaii, California, New Mexico, and Texas.

Historical population by state or territory

Non-Mexican white (1910-1930) and Non-Hispanic white % of population (1940-2010) by U.S. State[18][19][20]
State/Territory 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Alabama 65.3% 73.3% 73.3% 73.3% 70.3% 67.0%
Alaska 48.3% 77.2% 75.8% 73.9% 67.6% 64.1%
Arizona 65.1% 74.3% 74.5% 71.7% 63.8% 57.8%
Arkansas 75.2% 81.0% 82.2% 82.2% 78.6% 74.5%
California 89.5% 76.3% 66.6% 57.2% 46.7% 40.1%
Colorado 90.3% 84.6% 82.7% 80.7% 74.5% 70.0%
Connecticut 97.9% 91.4% 88.0% 83.8% 77.5% 71.2%
Delaware 86.4% 84.1% 81.3% 79.3% 72.5% 65.3%
District of Columbia 71.4% 26.5% 25.7% 27.4% 27.8% 34.8%
Florida 71.5% 77.9% 76.7% 73.2% 65.4% 57.9%
Georgia 65.2% 73.4% 71.6% 70.1% 62.6% 55.9%
Hawaii 31.5% 38.0% 31.1% 31.4% 22.9% 22.7%
Idaho 98.4% 95.9% 93.9% 92.2% 88.0% 84.0%
Illinois 94.7% 83.5% 78.0% 74.8% 67.8% 63.7%
Indiana 96.3% 91.7% 90.2% 89.6% 85.8% 81.5%
Iowa 99.2% 98.0% 96.9% 95.9% 92.6% 88.7%
Kansas 95.6% 92.7% 90.5% 88.4% 83.1% 78.2%
Kentucky 92.5% 92.4% 91.7% 91.7% 89.3% 86.3%
Louisiana 63.7% 68.2% 67.6% 65.8% 62.5% 60.3%
Maine 99.7% 99.1% 98.3% 98.0% 96.5% 94.4%
Maryland 83.3% 80.4% 73.9% 69.6% 62.1% 54.7%
Massachusetts 98.6% 95.4% 92.3% 87.8% 81.9% 76.1%
Michigan 95.7% 87.1% 84.1% 82.3% 78.6% 76.6%
Minnesota 99.0% 97.7% 96.1% 93.7% 88.2% 83.1%
Mississippi 50.6% 62.6% 63.6% 63.1% 60.7% 58.0%
Missouri 93.4% 88.6% 87.7% 86.9% 83.8% 81.0%
Montana 96.2% 94.7% 93.4% 91.8% 89.5% 87.8%
Nebraska 98.2% 95.2% 94.0% 92.5% 87.3% 82.1%
Nevada 91.6% 86.7% 83.2% 78.7% 65.2% 54.1%
New Hampshire 99.9% 99.1% 98.4% 97.3% 95.1% 92.3%
New Jersey 94.3% 84.7% 79.1% 74.0% 66.0% 59.3%
New Mexico 50.9% 53.8% 52.6% 50.4% 44.7% 40.5%
New York 94.6% 80.1% 75.0% 69.3% 62.0% 58.3%
North Carolina 71.9% 76.5% 75.3% 75.0% 70.2% 65.3%
North Dakota 98.3% 96.9% 95.5% 94.2% 91.7% 88.9%
Ohio 95.0% 89.8% 88.2% 87.1% 84.0% 81.1%
Oklahoma 89.9% 88.1% 85.0% 81.0% 74.1% 68.7%
Oregon 98.6% 95.8% 93.3% 90.8% 83.5% 78.5%
Pennsylvania 95.1% 90.3% 89.1% 87.7% 84.1% 79.5%
Rhode Island 98.3% 96.1% 93.4% 89.3% 81.9% 76.4%
South Carolina 57.1% 69.0% 68.3% 68.5% 66.1% 64.1%
South Dakota 96.2% 94.6% 92.3% 91.2% 88.0% 84.7%
Tennessee 82.5% 83.7% 83.1% 82.6% 79.2% 75.6%
Texas 74.1% 69.6% 65.7% 60.6% 52.4% 45.3%
Utah 98.2% 93.6% 92.4% 91.2% 85.3% 80.4%
Vermont 99.7% 99.2% 98.5% 98.1% 96.2% 94.3%
Virginia 75.3% 80.1% 78.2% 76.0% 70.2% 64.8%
Washington 97.7% 93.6% 90.2% 86.7% 78.9% 72.5%
West Virginia 93.7% 95.7% 95.6% 95.8% 94.6% 93.2%
Wisconsin 99.2% 95.6% 93.6% 91.3% 87.3% 83.3%
Wyoming 95.9% 92.1% 92.0% 91.0% 88.9% 85.9%
Puerto Rico 0.9% 0.7%

References

  1. ^ "Table 53. Languages Spoken At Home by Language: 2009", The 2012 Statistical Abstract (U.S. Census Bureau), retrieved 2011-12-27 
  2. ^ U.S. Census Bureau definition of race
  3. ^ Note that the majority of Hispanic and Latino Americans are white ([2]) like the overall population of the United States. Hispanics and Latinos can be of any race: white, black, Asian, etc., as race and ethnicity are independent of each other: "Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data".  
  4. ^ Worsham, Maria J.; Divine, George; Kittles, Rick A. (2014). "Race as a social construct in head and neck cancer outcomes". ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved October 5, 2014. 
  5. ^ Sailer, Steve. (8 May 2002). "Race Now Part 2: How White Are Blacks? How Black Are Whites?". UPI. iSteve.com, accessed 20 September 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Whites Account for Under Half of Births in U.S.". 
  7. ^ a b "2012 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". American FactFinder, U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  8. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr62/nvsr62_03.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr62/nvsr62_01.pdf
  10. ^ "US Office of Immigration Statistics: 2009 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  11. ^ http://www.dhs.gov/immigration-statistics
  12. ^ Pew Social Trends: "Marrying Out" June 15, 2010
  13. ^ New York Times: "Fix the Census’ Archaic Racial Categories" By KENNETH PREWITT August 21, 2013
  14. ^ Pew Social Trends: "Explaining Why Minority Births Now Outnumber White Births" by Jeffrey Passel, Gretchen Livingston and D’Vera Cohn May 17, 202
  15. ^ New York Times: "Census Benchmark for White Americans: More Deaths Than Births" By SAM ROBERTS June 13, 2013
  16. ^ CNN: "White U.S. population grows but drops in overall percentage" September 29, 2011
  17. ^ http://www.census.gov/2010census/
  18. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Census.gov. Retrieved September 15, 2012. 
  19. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/mso01-wp.pdf
  20. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-05.pdf
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