World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Nicaraguan general election, 1996

Article Id: WHEBN0024874264
Reproduction Date:

Title: Nicaraguan general election, 1996  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Nicaraguan general election, 1990, Nicaraguan general election, 2011, History of baseball in Nicaragua, Nicaragua, Sandinista National Liberation Front
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Nicaraguan general election, 1996

A general election was held in Nicaragua to elect a president and parliament on October 20, 1996.

Presidential election results[1]

Candidate Party/Alliance Votes %
Arnoldo Alemán Liberal Alliance (AL) = Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) / Independent Liberal Party for National Unity (PLIUN) / Nationalist Liberal Party (PLN) / Neoliberal Party (PALI) 896,207 50.99%
Daniel Ortega Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) 664,909 37.83%
Guillermo Antonio Osorno Molina Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Path (PCCN) 71,908 04.09%
Noel José Vidaurre Argüello Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCN) 39,983 02.27%
Benjamin Ramón Lanzas Selva National Project (PRONAL) 9,265 00.53%
Sergio Ramírez Mercado Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS) 7,665 00.44%
Francisco José Mayorga Balladares Bread and Strength Alliance (Pan y Fuerza) = National Action Party (PAN) / Republican Strength 96 Alliance (ASR) 7,102 00.40%
Francisco José Duarte Tapia National Conservative Action (ACN) 6,178 00.35%
Edgar Enrique Quiñónes Tuckler Nicaraguan Resistance Party (PRN) 5,813 00.33%
Andrés Abelino Robles Pérez Nicaraguan Workers, Peasants and Professionals Unity Party (PUNOCP) 5,789 00.33%
Virgilio Abelardo Godoy Reyes Independent Liberal Party (PLI) 5,692 00.32%
Jorge Alberto Díaz Cruz National Justice Party (PJN) 5,582 00.32%
Alejandro Serrano Caldera Unity Alliance (AU) = Social Christian Party (PCS) / Revolutionary Unity Movement (MUR) / Social Democratic Party (PSD) 4,873 00.28%
Elí Altamirano Pérez Communist Party of Nicaragua (PC de N) 4,802 00.27%
Miriam Auxiliadora Argüello Morales Popular Conservative Alliance (APC) 4,632 00.26%
Ausberto Narváez Argüello Liberal Unity Party (PUL) 3,887 00.22%
Alfredo César Aguirre National Opposition Union 96(UNO 96) = National Democratic Party (PND) / Conservative Action Movement (MAC) / Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN) 3,664 00.21%
Allan Antonio Tefel Alba National Renovation Movement (MORENA) 2,641 00.15%
James Odnith Webster Pitts Democratic Action Party (PAD) 1,895 00.11%
Sergio Abilio Mendieta Castillo Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC) 1,653 00.09%
Issa Moises Hassán Morales Renovating Action Movement (MAR) 1,393 00.08%
Gustavo Ernesto Tablada Zelaya Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN) 1,352 00.08%
Roberto Urcuyo Muñoz Nicaraguan Democratic Party (PADENIC) 890 00.05%
Total valid votes 1,757,775 100%
Spoilt and invalid votes 91,587 04.95%
Total votes/Turnout 1,849,362 76.39%
Registered voters 2,421,067
Population 4,706,000

Legislative election [2]

Parties and alliances Votes / National % Seats Votes / Departmental % Seats Total seats*
Liberal Alliance (AL) = Constitutionalist Liberal Party (PLC) / Independent Liberal Party for National Unity (PLIUN) / Nationalist Liberal Party (PLN) / Neoliberal Party (PALI) 789,533 45.97% 09 781,068 45.25% 33 42
Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) 626,178 36.46% 08 629,939 36.50% 27 36**
Nicaraguan Party of the Christian Path (PCCN) 63,867 03.72% 01 63,986 03.71% 02 04***
National Project (PRONAL) 40,656 02.37% 01 36,417 02.11% 01 02
Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCN) 36,543 02.13% 01 39,153 02.27% 01 03****
Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS) 22,789 01.33% 00 23,554 01.36% 01 01
Nicaraguan Resistance Party (PRN) 21,068 01.23% 00 27,970 01.62% 01 01
Unity Alliance (AU) = Social Christian Party (PCS) / Revolutionary Unity Movement (MUR) / Social Democratic Party (PSD) 14,001 00.82% 00 13,848 00.80% 01 01
Independent Liberal Party (PLI) 12,459 00.73% 00 13,697 00.79% 01 01
National Opposition Union 96 (UNO 96) = National Democratic Party (PND) / Conservative Action Movement (MAC) / Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN) 10,706 00.62% 00 12,720 00.74% 01 01
National Conservative Action (ACN) 9,811 00.57% 00 13,011 00.75% 00 00
National Action Party (PAN) 9,724 00.57% 00 12,016 00.70% 00 00
National Justice Party (PJN) 8,155 00.47% 00 8,527 00.49% 00 00
Liberal Unity Party (PUL) 7,531 00.44% 00 9,893 00.57% 00 00
Popular Conservative Alliance (APC) 6,726 00.39% 00 6,335 00.37% 01 01
Communist Party of Nicaragua (PC de N) 6,360 00.37% 00 6,970 00.40% 00 00
Nicaraguan Workers, Peasants and Professionals Unity Party (PUNOCP) 5,641 00.33% 00 5,067 00.29% 00 00
Democratic Action Party (PAD) 5,272 00.31% 00 6,254 00.36% 00 00
National Renovation Movement (MORENA) 4,988 00.29% 00 3,788 00.22% 00 00
Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN) 2,980 00.17% 00 3,228 00.19% 00 00
Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC) 2,834 00.17% 00 2,406 00.14% 00 00
Marxist-Leninist Popular Action Movement (MAP ML) 2,446 00.14% 00 520 00.03% 00 00
Renovating Action Movement (MAR) 2,418 00.14% 00 2,992 00.17% 00 00
Nicaraguan Democratic Alliance (ADN) 1,730 00.10% 00 2,060 00.12% 00 00
Social Democratic Party (PSD) 724 00.04% 00 00
Total valid votes 1,717,416 100% 20 1,726,143 100% 70 93*
Spoilt and invalid votes 113,391 06.19% 113,169 06.15%
Total votes/Turnout 1,830,807 75.62% 1,839,312 75.97%
Registered voters 2,421,067 2,421,067
Population 4,706,000 4,706,000

References

  1. ^ Elections in the Americas : a data handbook / ed. by Dieter Nohlen, Vol. 1. [Oxford] [u.a.] : Oxford Univ. Press, 2005. Pp.503.
  2. ^ Elections in the Americas : a data handbook / ed. by Dieter Nohlen, Vol. 1. [Oxford] [u.a.] : Oxford Univ. Press, 2005. Pp.497.

Bibliography

Alcántara Sáez, Manuel. Sistemas políticos de América Latina. Madrid: Tecnos. Two volumes. Volume two is “México, América Central y el Caribe.” Largely rewritten and updated second edition. 1999.

Anderson, Leslie and Lawrence C. Dodd. “ Nicaragua votes: the elections of 2001.” Journal of democracy 13, 3:80-93 (July 2002).

Blandón, María Teresa. “The Coalición Nacional de Mujeres: an alliance of left-wing women, right-wing women, and radical feminists in Nicaragua.” Radical women in Latin America: left and right. 2001. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University.

Booth, John A. and Patricia Bayer Richard. “The Nicaraguan elections of October 1996.” Electoral studies 16, 3:386-393 (September 1997).

Booth, John A. “Electoral observation and democratic transition in Nicaragua.” Electoral observation and democratic transitions in Latin America. 1998. La Jolla: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego.

Booth, John A. and Thomas W. Walker. Understanding Central America. Boulder: Westview Press. Third edition. 1999.

Butler, Judy, David R. Dye, Jack Spence, and George Vickers. La democracia y sus descontentos: los nicaragüenses en la hora de las elecciones. Cambridge: Hemisphere Initiatives, Washington Office on Latin America. Also published in English as Democracy and its discontents: Nicaraguans face the election. 1996.

Chamorro, Carlos F. “Polarización política y elecciones en Nicaragua.” Elecciones y democracia en América Latina 1992-1996: urnas y desencanto político. 1998. San José: Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos. 1998.

Close, David. Nicaragua : the Chamorro years. Boulder: Lynne Reinner. 1999.

Elections in the Americas A Data Handbook Volume 1. North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Edited by Dieter Nohlen. 2005.

Fiallos Oyanguren, Mariano. “Nicaragua: sistema de elección de los diputados ante la Asamblea Nacional.” Sistemas de elecciones parliamentarias y su relación con la gobernabilidad democrática. 2000. San José: Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos.

Fisk, Daniel W. The 1998 Nicaraguan Atlantic Coast elections: post-election report. Washington, D.C.: CSIS Americas Program. 1998.

González, Victoria. “Mujeres somocistas: ‘La Pechuga’ y el corazón de la dictadura nicaragüense (1936–1979).” Entre silencios y voces: género e historia en América Central, 1750-1990. 1997. San José: Centro Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Mujer y la Familia.

Hoyt, Katherine. The many faces of Sandinista democracy. Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies. 1997.

Isbester, Katherine. Still fighting: the Nicaraguan women’s movement, 1977-2000. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. 2001.

Kampwirth, Karen. Feminism and the legacy of revolution: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chiapas. Athens: Ohio University Press. 2004.

Luciak, Ilja A. “Women in the transition. The revolutionary left, gender equality, and democratization: a comparison of El Salvador and Nicaragua.” Pensamiento propio series 2, 6:207-242 (enero-abril 1998). Spanish edition published separately in this issue.

Luciak, Ilja A. After the revolution: gender and democracy in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Also published as Después de la revolución. San Salvador: UCA Editores). 2001.

McCoy, Jennifer L. and Shelley A. McConnell. “ Nicaragua: beyond the revolution.” Current history 96, 607:75-80 (February 1997).

Metoyer, Cynthia Chavez. Women and the state in post-Sandinista Nicaragua. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. 2000.

Millett, Richard L. “ Nicaragua: the politics of frustration.” Latin American politics and development. 2000. Boulder: Westview Press. Fifth edition, fully revised and updated. 2000.

Núñez Vargas, Eduardo. “Nicaragua: elecciones generales, 20 de octubre de 1996.” Boletín electoral latinoamericano 16:37-68 (julio-diciembre 1996).

Ortega Hegg, Manuel. “Participación y democracia en Nicaragua.” Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: democracia y participación en Centroamérica. 2001. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO.

Patterson, Henry. “The 1996 elections and Nicaragua’s fragile transition.” Government and opposition 32, 3: 380-398 (summer 1997).

Payne, Douglas W. The 1996 Nicaragua elections: post-election report. Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies. 1996.

Political handbook of the world 1996. New York, 1997.

Rios Rocha, Hilda Mercedes and Gloria Esther Tenorio S. “Las mujeres y las elecciones de 1996.” Mujeres, realidad y nuevas perspectivas. 1997. Managua: Instituto de Investigaciones Mujer y Cambio.

Saballos, Marvin. “ Nicaragua 1996: conteo rápido electoral. Educación democrática para una sociedad en transición.” Boletín electoral latinoamericano 17:159-184 (enero-junio 1997).

Traña Galeano, Marcia. Apuntes sobre la historia de Managua. Managua: Aldilá Editor. 2000.

Vargas, Oscar-René. “Resultados de las elecciones en Nicaragua: crisis o un gran acuerdo.” Pensamiento propio series 2, 2:72-92 (septiembre-diciembre 1996).

Vargas, Oscar-René. El Sandinismo: veinte años después. Managua: Centro Nicaragüense de Escritores. 1999.

Walker, Thomas W. “ Nicaragua: transition through revolution.” Repression, resistance, and democratic transition in Central America. 2000. Wilmington: SR Books.

Wheaton, Philip. E. Hope in the midst of chaos: contradictions for peace & reconciliation in Nicaragua. Uppsala: Life and Peace Institute. 2002.

Zub K., Roberto. Protestantismo y participación política en Nicaragua: un análisis de las raíces, characterísticas e influencias de la participación individual y partidaria. Managua: CIEETS, UENIC-MLK. 2002.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.