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Moctezuma I

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Moctezuma I

Moctezuma I
5th Tlatoani of Tenochititlan
Ruler of the Aztec Triple Alliance
Moctezuma I in the Codex Mendoza.
Reign 1440–1469
Predecessor Itzcoatl
Successor Axayacatl
Wife
Issue Princess Atotoztli II
Princess Chichimecacihuatzin II
Prince Iquehuacatzin
Prince Mahchimaleh
Father Emperor Huitzilihuitl
Mother Queen Miahuaxihuitl
Born 1398
Died 1469 (aged 70–71)

Moctezuma I (c. 1398–1469), also known as Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina, Huehuemotecuhzoma or Montezuma I (Classical Nahuatl: Motēuczōma Ilhuicamīna , Classical Nahuatl: Huēhuemotēuczōma ), was the fifth Aztec emperor and king of Tenochtitlan. During his reign the Aztec Empire was consolidated, major expansion was undertaken and Tenochtitlan started becoming the dominant partner of the Aztec Triple Alliance.

Biography

Monetzumba was the son of emperor and queen. He was a brother of , Et and a .

Reign

Moctezuma took power in 1440, after the death of his half-uncle Itzcoatl. As tlatoani, Moctezuma solidified the alliance with two neighboring peoples, Tlacopan (a small city-state) and Texcoco. In this skillfully crafted Triple Alliance, 4/5ths of a newly conquered territory would be divided between Texcoco and the Aztecs, with the remaining 1/5 given to Tlacopan.

Among the Aztecs' greatest achievements, Moctezuma and Nezahualcoyotl of Texcoco organized the construction and completion of a double aqueduct pipe system, supplying the city of Tenochtitlan with fresh water.

Moctezuma also extended the boundaries of the Aztec empire beyond the Valley of México to the Gulf Coast, subjugating the Huastec people and Totonac peoples and thereby gaining access to exotic goods such as cocoa, rubber, cotton, fruits, feathers, and seashells.

About 1458, Moctezuma led an expedition into Mixtec territory against the city-state of Coixtlahuaca, the pretext being the mistreatment of Aztec merchants. Despite the support of contingents of Tlaxcala and Huexotzingo warriors, traditional enemies of the Aztecs, the Mixtecs were defeated. While most of the defeated chieftains were allowed to retain their positions, the Mixtec ruler Atonal was ritually strangled and his family was taken as slaves. The Codex Mendoza records that the tribute owed by Coixtlahuaca consisted of 2000 blankets (of 5 types), 2 military outfits with headdresses and shields, green gemstone beads, 800 bunches of green feathers, 40 bags of cochineal dye, and 20 bowls of gold dust. He took many girls from Coixtlahuaca and had ten harems all to himself. He stole three of them from his dead brother Zaca. [1]

Similar campaigns were conducted against Cosamaloapan, Ahuilizapan (Orizaba), and Cuetlachtlan (Cotaxtla).

Map showing the expansion of the Aztec empire showing the areas conquered by the Aztec rulers. The conquests of Moctezuma is marked by the colour pink.[2]

Notes

  1. ^ Smith (2003, p. 161).
  2. ^ Map based on Hassig (1988)

References

External links

Preceded by
Itzcoatl
Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan
1440–1469
Succeeded by
Axayacatl
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