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List of Countries

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List of Countries

"List of nations" and "List of countries" redirect here. For other country lists, see Lists of countries and territories. For non-sovereign dependencies, see Dependent territory.

This is a list of sovereign states giving an overview of states around the world with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty.

The list contains 206 entries. The states are divided using two distinct methods:

  1. The membership within the United Nations system column divides the states into two categories: 193 member states[1] two observer states, and 11 other states.
  2. The sovereignty disputes column divides the states into two categories: 190 undisputed states and 16 states whose sovereignty is disputed.

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below.

List of states

Short and formal names Membership within the UN System [Note 1] Sovereignty dispute [Note 2] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty [Note 4]
A AAA A AAA A AAA
ZZZUN member states or observer states A AAA ZZZ
ZZZAbkhazia → Abkhazia A UN member state A None
 Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan A UN member state A None
 Albania – Republic of Albania A UN member state A None
 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria A UN member state A None
 Andorra – Principality of Andorra A UN member state A None Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell,[2] who himself is appointed by the Holy See.
 Angola – Republic of Angola A UN member state A None
 Antigua and Barbuda A UN member state A None Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.[Note 6][3]
 Argentina – Argentine Republic [Note 7] A UN member state A None Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom.[4] Argentina claims Argentine Antarctica as part of its national territory, officially a department of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands, which overlaps with the claims of the UK and Chile.[Note 8][5]
 Armenia – Republic of Armenia A UN member state Not recognised by Pakistan[6][7]
 Australia – Commonwealth of Australia A UN member state A None Australia is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of 6 states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:
 Austria – Republic of Austria A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Austria is a federation of 9 states (Bundesländer).
 Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan A UN member state A None Azerbaijan contains 2 autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[Note 6] In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto state has been established.
 Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of The Bahamas A UN member state A None The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain A UN member state A None
 Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh A UN member state A None
 Barbados A UN member state A None Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Belarus – Republic of Belarus A UN member state A None
 Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.
 Belize A UN member state A None Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Benin – Republic of Benin [Note 9] A UN member state A None
 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan A UN member state A None
 Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia A UN member state A None
 Bosnia and Herzegovina A UN member state A None Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of 2 constituent units:

and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative unit.[Note 10]

 Botswana – Republic of Botswana A UN member state A None
 Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil A UN member state A None Brazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.
 Brunei – Nation of Brunei, Abode of Peace A UN member state A None Brunei claims sovereignty over part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 11]
 Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Burkina Faso [Note 12] A UN member state A None
 Burma – Republic of the Union of Myanmar [Note 13][9] A UN member state A None
 Burundi – Republic of Burundi A UN member state A None
 Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia A UN member state A None
 Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon A UN member state A None
 Canada [Note 14] A UN member state A None Canada is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of 10 provinces and 3 territories.
 Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde A UN member state A None
 Central African Republic A UN member state A None
 Chad – Republic of Chad A UN member state A None
 Chile – Republic of Chile A UN member state A None Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands are "special territories" of Chile in the Valparaíso Region. Chile claims part of Antarctica as a commune in its Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region. Its claim overlaps with those of the UK and Argentina.[Note 8]
 China – People's Republic of China[Note 15] A UN member state Template:Claimedby The People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[Note 6] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

China is not recognised by 22 UN member states and the Holy See, which instead recognise Taiwan (the Republic of China).[Note 16]

China claims, but does not control, the de facto independent Taiwan,[Note 17] and the Indian-controlled South Tibet. India claims the Chinese-controlled Aksai Chin.[Note 18] China has some control over the disputed Paracel[Note 19] and Spratly Islands.[Note 11]

China, Republic of → Taiwan A UN member state A None
 Colombia – Republic of Colombia A UN member state A None The Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank are under various claims by Honduras, Nicaragua, Jamaica, and the United States.[4]
 Comoros – Union of the Comoros A UN member state A None Comoros is a federation of 3 islands, and claims Mayotte, part of France, as a fourth.[Note 20][10] Comoros also disputes French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser.[4]
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the [Note 21] A UN member state A None
 Congo, Republic of the [Note 22] A UN member state A None
ZZZCook Islands → Cook Islands A UN member state A None
 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica A UN member state A None
 Côte d'Ivoire – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) A UN member state A None
 Croatia – Republic of Croatia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Cuba – Republic of Cuba A UN member state A None
 Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus A UN member state Not recognised by Turkey and Northern Cyprus Member of the EU.[Note 3] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of South Cyprus".[11]
 Czech Republic [Note 23] A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea → Korea, North A UN member state A None
Democratic Republic of the Congo → Congo, Democratic Republic of the A UN member state A None
 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]

The Danish Realm also includes two self-governing territories:

 Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti A UN member state A None
 Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica A UN member state A None
 Dominican Republic A UN member state A None
 East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste [Note 24] A UN member state A None
 Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador A UN member state A None
 Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt A UN member state A None
 El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador A UN member state A None
 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea A UN member state A None
 Eritrea – State of Eritrea A UN member state A None
 Estonia – Republic of Estonia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia A UN member state A None Ethiopia is a federation of 9 regions and 2 chartered cities.
 Fiji – Republic of Fiji A UN member state A None Fiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[Note 6][12][13]
 Finland – Republic of Finland A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 France – French Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] France contains 5 overseas regions/departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:

French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser, Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Mayotte, and Tromelin Island is disputed in part by Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros.[4]

 Gabon – Gabonese Republic A UN member state A None
Gambia  Gambia, The – Republic of the Gambia A UN member state A None
 Georgia A UN member state A None Georgia contains 2 autonomous regions, Adjara and Abkhazia.[Note 6] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
 Germany – Federal Republic of Germany A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder).
 Ghana – Republic of Ghana A UN member state A None
 Greece – Hellenic Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.[14]
 Grenada A UN member state A None Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala A UN member state A None
 Guinea – Republic of Guinea[Note 26] A UN member state A None
 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau A UN member state A None
 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana A UN member state A None All land west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Venezuela.[4]
 Haiti – Republic of Haiti A UN member state A None
Holy See → Vatican City A UN member state A None
 Honduras – Republic of Honduras A UN member state A None
 Hungary A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Iceland – Republic of Iceland A UN member state A None
 India – Republic of India A UN member state A None India is a federation of 28 states and 7 union territories. Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh is disputed by the People's Republic of China.[4] India claims sovereignty over the whole of Kashmir, but administers only part of it as the federated state of Jammu and Kashmir.[Note 18]
 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia A UN member state A None Indonesia has 5 provinces with official special autonomy status: Aceh, Jakarta SCR, Yogyakarta SR, Papua, and West Papua.[Note 6]
 Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran A UN member state A None
 Iraq – Republic of Iraq A UN member state A None Iraq is a federation[Note 20][15] of 18 governorates, 3 of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[Note 6]
 Ireland [Note 27] A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]

The Constitution of Ireland asserts the aspiration towards creating a united Ireland by peaceful means.[16]

 Israel – State of Israel A UN member state Not recognised by 33 states In 1967, Israel occupied the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.[17] Israel annexed East Jerusalem[18] and the Golan Heights.[19] These areas are not internationally-recognised as being part of Israel.[4] Between 1982 and 2000, Israel occupied part of southern Lebanon, in what was known as the Security Zone.[20] Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt as part of the Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty.[21] Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, but is still considered the occupying power under international law.[22][23][24][25][26] Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) and by the SADR.
 Italy – Italian Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[Note 6]
Ivory Coast → Côte d'Ivoire A UN member state A None
 Jamaica A UN member state A None Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Japan A UN member state A None Japan disputes Russian administration of the South Kuril Islands.
 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan A UN member state A None
 Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan A UN member state A None
 Kenya – Republic of Kenya A UN member state A None
 Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati A UN member state A None
 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea A UN member state Template:Claimedby North Korea is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[Note 28][27]
 Korea, South – Republic of Korea A UN member state Template:Claimedby South Korea contains 1 autonomous region, Jeju-do.[Note 6][28] South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[Note 28]
ZZZKosovo → Kosovo A UN member state A None
 Kuwait – State of Kuwait A UN member state A None
 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic A UN member state A None
 Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic A UN member state A None
 Latvia – Republic of Latvia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Lebanon – Lebanese Republic A UN member state A None
 Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho A UN member state A None
 Liberia – Republic of Liberia A UN member state A None
 Libya – State of Libya A UN member state A None
 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein A UN member state A None
 Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia A UN member state A None Because of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
 Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar A UN member state A None Madagascar claims the French territories of Banc du Geyser, Juan de Nova Island, and the Glorioso Islands.[4]
 Malawi – Republic of Malawi A UN member state A None
 Malaysia A UN member state A None Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and 3 federal territories. Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 11]
 Maldives – Republic of Maldives A UN member state A None
 Mali – Republic of Mali A UN member state A None
 Malta – Republic of Malta A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania A UN member state A None
 Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius A UN member state A None Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[Note 6] Mauritius claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French island of Tromelin.[4]
 Mexico – United Mexican States A UN member state A None Mexico is a federation of 31 states and 1 federal district.
 Micronesia, Federated States of A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of 4 states.
 Moldova – Republic of Moldova A UN member state A None Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state.
 Monaco – Principality of Monaco A UN member state A None
 Mongolia A UN member state A None
 Montenegro A UN member state A None
 Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco A UN member state A None Morocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputes Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Melilla and the "Plazas de soberanía".[4]
 Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique A UN member state A None
Myanmar → Burma A UN member state A None
ZZZNagorno-Karabakh → Nagorno-Karabakh A UN member state A None
 Namibia – Republic of Namibia A UN member state A None
 Nauru – Republic of Nauru A UN member state A None
   Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal A UN member state A None Nepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.
 Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four constituent countries:

The monarch and his ministers form the government of the kingdom as well as the government of its constituent country, the Netherlands. Following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have become constituent countries, which, alongside Aruba, enjoy considerable autonomy. The other three islands (Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius) became special municipalities of the Netherlands.

The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to one of the Kingdom's constituent countries or to the short name for the Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

 New Zealand A UN member state A None New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm,[Note 5] and has the dependent territories of:

The Tokelauan government claims sovereignty over Swains Island, part of American Samoa, a territory of the United States.[29] New Zealand does not recognize the Tokelauan claim.[30]

New Zealand has responsibilities for two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 39 and 8 UN members respectively.[31][32][33] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[34] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua A UN member state A None Claims the San Andrés archipelago, part of Colombian territorial waters

Nicaragua contains 2 autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[Note 6]

 Niger – Republic of Niger A UN member state A None
 Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria A UN member state A None Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.
ZZZNiue → Niue A UN member state A None
ZZZNorthern Cyprus → Northern Cyprus A UN member state A None
North Korea → Korea, North A UN member state A None
 Norway – Kingdom of Norway A UN member state A None

Norway has the dependent territories of:

 Oman – Sultanate of Oman A UN member state A None
 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan A UN member state A None Pakistan is a federation of 4 provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes Indian sovereignty over Kashmir. It exercises control over some areas, but does not explicitly claim any part of it,[35][36] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[37][38] The portions that it controls are divided into two polities, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[Note 18]
 Palau – Republic of Palau A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Palestine – State of Palestine A UN observer state; member of UNESCO Template:Claimedby The declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from Template:Numrec states.[39] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on the territory that it proclaimed.[40] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.[41] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO,[42] and an observer state in the UN.
 Panama – Republic of Panama A UN member state A None
 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea A UN member state A None Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[Note 6]
 Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay A UN member state A None
 Peru – Republic of Peru A UN member state A None
 Philippines – Republic of the Philippines A UN member state A None The Philippines contains one autonomous region, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[Note 6] There has been efforts to establish the Cordillera Administrative Region as an autonomous region as well, however in the last referendum of 1998, the people of the Cordillera region voted against the proposition. The Philippines administers Scarborough Shoal and some of the Spratly Islands,[Note 11] and claims sovereignty over Sabah, which is part of Malaysia.[4]
 Poland – Republic of Poland A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Portugal – Portuguese Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Portugal contains 2 autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[Note 6] Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga.[4]
Pridnestrovie → Transnistria A UN member state A None
 Qatar – State of Qatar A UN member state A None
Republic of Korea → Korea, South A UN member state A None
Republic of the Congo → Congo, Republic of the A UN member state A None
 Romania A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Russia – Russian Federation A UN member state A None Russia is officially a federation of 83 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[Note 6] Sovereignty over the South Kuril Islands is disputed by Japan.
 Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda A UN member state A None
ZZZSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic A UN member state A None
 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis A UN member state A None Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and is a federation [Note 20] of 14 parishes.
 Saint Lucia A UN member state A None Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines A UN member state A None Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Samoa – Independent State of Samoa A UN member state A None
 San Marino – Republic of San Marino A UN member state A None
 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe A UN member state A None São Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[Note 6]
 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia A UN member state A None
 Senegal – Republic of Senegal A UN member state A None
 Serbia – Republic of Serbia A UN member state A None Serbia contains 2 autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[Note 6] Most of the latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo.
 Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles A UN member state A None Seychelles claims the British Indian Ocean Territory.[4]
 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone A UN member state A None
 Singapore – Republic of Singapore A UN member state A None
 Slovakia – Slovak Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 Solomon Islands A UN member state A None The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Somalia – Federal Republic of Somalia A UN member state A None Somalia is presently divided with its official government (TFG) controlling only part of the country. Puntland and Galmudug have declared themselves as autonomous regions of Somalia (a claim that the TFG does not recognise),[43][need quotation to verify] while Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state.
ZZZSomaliland → Somaliland A UN member state A None
 South Africa – Republic of South Africa A UN member state A None
South Korea → Korea, South A UN member state A None
ZZZSouth Ossetia → South Ossetia A UN member state A None
 South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan A UN member state A None South Sudan is a federation of 10 states. Disputes Abyei with the Republic of the Sudan.[4]
 Spain – Kingdom of Spain A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Spain is divided into autonomous communities and cities.[Note 6] Sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas is disputed by Morocco. Sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga is disputed by Portugal. Spain calls for sovereignty over Gibraltar.[4]
 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka A UN member state A None Formerly known as Ceylon.
 Sudan – Republic of the Sudan A UN member state A None Sudan is a federation of 17 states. Disputes Abyei and Kafia Kingi with South Sudan.
ZZZSudan, South → South Sudan A UN member state A None
 Suriname – Republic of Suriname A UN member state A None
 Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland A UN member state A None
 Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation A UN member state A None Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
 Syria – Syrian Arab Republic A UN member state A None Israel occupies the Golan Heights.[17]
The Syrian National Coalition, which is recognized as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.
ZZZTaiwan (Republic of China) → Taiwan A UN member state A None
 Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan A UN member state A None Tajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[Note 6]
 Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania A UN member state A None Tanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[Note 6]
 Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand A UN member state A None
Timor-Leste → East Timor A UN member state A None
 Togo – Togolese Republic A UN member state A None
 Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga A UN member state A None
ZZZTransnistria → Transnistria A UN member state A None
 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago A UN member state A None Trinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[Note 6]
 Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia A UN member state A None
 Turkey – Republic of Turkey A UN member state A None
 Turkmenistan A UN member state A None
 Tuvalu A UN member state A None Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 Uganda – Republic of Uganda A UN member state A None
 Ukraine A UN member state A None Ukraine contains 1 autonomous region, Crimea.[Note 6]
 United Arab Emirates A UN member state A None The United Arab Emirates is a federation of 7 emirates.
 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] consisting of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

 United States – United States of America A UN member state A None The United States is a federation of 50 states, 1 federal district, and the incorporated territory of Palmyra Atoll. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:

The United States asserts claims to Colombian-controlled Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank.[4]

Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:

  •  Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
  • Template:Country data Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
  •  Palau – Republic of Palau
 Uruguay – Oriental Republic of Uruguay A UN member state A None
 Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan A UN member state A None Uzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[Note 6]
 Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu A UN member state A None
  Vatican City – Vatican City State A UN observer state; member of multiple UN specialized agencies and the IAEA A None Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 179 states.[44] The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State")[41] and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City. The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy.
 Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela A UN member state A None Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam A UN member state A None Vietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracel[Note 19] and Spratly Islands.[Note 11][4]
 Yemen – Republic of Yemen A UN member state A None
 Zambia – Republic of Zambia A UN member state A None
 Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe A UN member state A None
ZZZUN member states and observer states A ZZZ ZZZ
ZZZ AB B
ZZZ↓ Other states ↓ D AAA ZZZ
 Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia D No membership Template:Claimedby Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Tuvalu,[45] Venezuela,[46] South Ossetia and Transnistria.[47] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
 Cook Islands D Member of multiple UN specialized agencies A None A state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands has relations with 41 other states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[34] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo D Member of the IMF and WBG Template:Claimedby Kosovo unilaterally declared independence in 2008 and it has Template:Numrec and Taiwan. Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo is formally under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
 Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic D No membership Template:Claimedby A de facto independent state,[48][49][50] recognised only by Abkhazia,[51] South Ossetia[51] and Transnistria.[51][52] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[53]
 Niue D Member of multiple UN specialized agencies A None A state in free association with New Zealand, Niue has relations with nine other states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[34] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus D No membership Claimed by Cyprus Recognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. In addition, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, which is a part of Azerbaijan, regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan has not followed suit. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[54]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic D No membership Template:Claimedby Recognised by Template:Numrec, Template:Numrec of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
 Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland D No membership Template:Claimedby A de facto independent state,[48][55][56][57][58] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia.[59]
 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia D No membership Template:Claimedby A de facto independent state,[60] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela,[46] Abkhazia and Transnistria.[47] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[61]
 Taiwan – Republic of China[Note 15] D No membership Template:Claimedby A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[Note 11] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[62] The Republic of China is recognised by Template:Numrec. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 17] The Republic of China participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The Republic of China was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the security council. See China and the United Nations.
 Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic D No membership Template:Claimedby A de facto independent state,[48] recognised only by Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[47] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.[63]
ZZZ↑ Other states ↑ D ZZZ ZZZ
ZZZZ ZZZZ ZZZZ
Legend
  UN Member states
  UN Observer states
  Member of a UN Specialized Agency
  No membership in the UN system
  Sovereignty disputed

Criteria for inclusion

The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood that defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states." Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood, an example of which can be found in the Montevideo Convention, argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:

  • (a) consider themselves sovereign (through a declaration of independence or some other means) and are often regarded as satisfying the declarative theory of statehood

or

  • (b) are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member state

Note that in some cases there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities:[64][Note 29]

  • 203 states recognised by at least one UN member state
  • Two states that satisfy the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised only by non-UN member states: Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Transnistria
  • One state that satisfies the declarative theory of statehood and is not recognised by any other state: Somaliland

See also

Notes

  1. membership in the European Union,[Note 3] where applicable,
  2. any overseas dependencies, if applicable, which are generally not part of the territory of the sovereign state,
  3. federal structure of the state, where applicable. More information can be found at Federated state,
  4. any autonomous areas inside the territory of the sovereign state,
  5. any situations where one person is the Head of State of more than one state,
  6. any major territorial disputes,
  7. any governments in exile recognised by at least one state.

References

  1. "...the United States considers the Golan Heights to be occupied territory subject to negotiation and Israeli withdrawal..." ("General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees, United Nations, December 5, 2008.)
  2. "It is possible, however, to argue for Palestinian statehood based on the constitutive theory".
  3. "Whether one applies the criteria of statehood set out in the Montevideo Convention or the more widely accepted constitutive theory of statehood, Palestine might be considered a state."

Bibliography

Template:States with limited recognition

nds:Land#Länner sv:Världsgeografi#Lista över länder

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