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Lesser spotted eagle

Lesser spotted eagle
Adult
Note light patches on wings
and white V on rump
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Accipitriformes
Family: Accipitridae
Subfamily: Buteoninae (disputed)
Genus: Clanga
Species: C. pomarina
Binomial name
Clanga pomarina
Brehm, 1831
Range of C. pomarina      Breeding range     Resident range     Wintering range
Synonyms

Aquila pomarina

The lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina) is a large Eastern European bird of prey. Like all typical eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. The typical eagles are often united with the buteos, sea eagles, and other more heavy-set Accipitridae, but more recently it appears as if they are less distinct from the more slender accipitrine hawks than believed.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Systematics, taxonomy and evolution 2
  • Distribution and ecology 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6

Description

A drawing of a lesser spotted eagle

This is a medium-sized eagle, about 60 cm (24 in) in length and with a wingspan of 150 cm (59 in). Its head and wing coverts are pale brown and contrast with the generally dark plumage. The head and bill are small for an eagle. Usually, a white patch occurs on the upper wings, and even adults retain a clearly marked white "V" on the rump; the wing markings are absent and the white "V" is not well-defined in the greater spotted eagle.

The juvenile has less contrast in the wings, but the remiges bear prominent white spots. It differs from greater spotted eagle juveniles by a lack of wing covert spotting and the presence of a cream-colored neck patch.

The call is a dog-like yip.

Systematics, taxonomy and evolution

The birds formerly considered to be the resident Indian subspecies are now considered a separate species, the Indian spotted eagle (Clanga hastata), quite distinct and readily separable by morphological, behavioral, ecological, and DNA sequence data. The European taxon is actually closer to the greater spotted eagle; their common ancestor seems to have diverged around the middle Pliocene, perhaps some 3.6 million years ago,[2] from the ancestors of the Indian birds. The "proto-spotted eagle" probably lived in the general region of Afghanistan, being split into a northern and a southern lineage when both glaciers and deserts advanced in Central Asia as the last ice age began. The northern lineage subsequently separated into the eastern (greater) and western (lesser) species of today, probably around the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary not quite 2 million years ago.[3][4][5]

The spotted eagles as a group are quite distinct from the typical members of Aquila, the "true eagles".

A two-egg clutch in nest

The present species hybridizes occasionally with the greater spotted eagle. Hybrid birds are almost impossible to identify if not seen up close.[6]

Distribution and ecology

Egg, collection of Museum Wiesbaden

The lesser spotted eagle breeds in Central and Eastern Europe and southeastward to Turkey, and winters in Africa. This is a very wary species of open or lightly wooded country, in which it hunts small mammals and similar terrestrial prey. This eagle lays one to three white, buff-spotted eggs in a tree nest. As usual for eagles, only in breeding seasons with very abundant prey does more than one young fledge, but the female starts incubating when the first egg has been laid, thus the first young to hatch usually outgrows its clutch mate(s) and will kill and even eat them sooner or later.

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ The estimate in Väli 2006 is certainly incorrect; it uses a molecular clock that is appropriate for small passerines with half the generation times of eagles.
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^

Further reading

External links

  • Lesser spotted eagle species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds
  • Aquila pomarinaBirdLife species factsheet for
  • Aquila pomarina on Avibase
  • Lesser spotted eagle videos, photos, and sounds at the Internet Bird Collection
  • Lesser spotted eagle photo gallery at VIREO (Drexel University)
  • Audio recordings of Lesser Spotted Eagle on Xeno-canto.
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