World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Lead-in (CD)

Article Id: WHEBN0003197840
Reproduction Date:

Title: Lead-in (CD)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Compact disc
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Lead-in (CD)

Optical disc authoring, including DVD and Blu-ray Disc authoring (often referred to colloquially as burning), is the process of assembling source material—video, audio or other data—into the proper logical volume format to then be recorded ("burned") onto an optical disc (typically a compact disc or DVD).


To burn an optical disc, one usually first creates an optical disc image with a full file system designed for the optical disc, and then copies the image to the disc. The disc image is a single file, built and stored on the hard drive.

Most optical disc authoring utilities create a disc image and copy it to the disc in one bundled operation, so that end-users often do not know the distinction between creating and burning. However, it is useful to know because creating the disc image is a time-consuming process, while copying the image is much faster. Most disc burning applications silently delete the image from the Temporary folder after making one copy. If users override this default, telling the application to preserve the image, they can reuse the image to create more copies. Otherwise, they must rebuild the image each time they want a copy.

Some packet-writing applications do not require writing the entire disc at once, but allow writing of different parts at different times. This allows a user to construct a disc incrementally, as it could be on a rewritable medium like a floppy disk or rewritable CD. However, if the disk is non-rewritable, a given bit can be written only once. Due to this limitation, a non-rewritable disc whose burn failed for any reason cannot be repaired. (Such a disk is colloquially termed a "coaster", a reference to a beverage coaster.)

There are many optical disc authoring technologies for optimizing the authoring process and preventing errors. Some programs can mount a disc image as a file system type, so these images appear as mounted discs. The disc image can then be tested after it is assembled but before writing to a physical disk.


Main article: Session (CD)

Data on an audio compact disc is laid out in sessions. Each session has three areas: a lead-in containing the session's Table of Contents; a program holding several tracks (described in the next section); and a lead-out to mark the end of the session. A disc can have up to 99 tracks. Each session must have at least one track. The tracks are in the program area of the session. When the session is closed, the lead-out area is written.


Main article: Track (CD)

Tracks contain the information of interest, which the disc is being used to store. A track is a consecutive set of sectors on the disc containing a block of data. One session may contain one or more tracks of the same or different types. Tracks can be audio information or data, which use the same format, or video information. Data can include album information and low-resolution graphics such as karaoke lyrics; however, these tracks are not compliant with the Red Book of CD audio standards.


Main article: Optical disc drive

Authoring is commonly done in software on computers with optical disc recorders. There are, however, stand-alone devices like personal video recorders which can also author and record discs.


Use of optical disc recorders require optical disc authoring software, sometimes called "burning applications" or "burner applications". Such software is usually sold with the recorder. Some operating systems come bundled with them.

Creating an optical disc usually involves first creating an optical disc image with a full file system designed for the optical disc, and then actually burning the image to the disc. Many programs create the disk image and burn in one bundled application (Quick Copy or Copy On-the-fly), such that end-users do not even know the distinction.

Disk file systems include ISO 9660 (often known simply as “ISO”) and Universal Disk Format (UDF). ISO is most common for CDs and UDF is most common for DVDs.

There are also packet writing applications that do not require writing the entire disc at once, but allow writing parts at a time, allowing the disc to be used as a random access removable medium (somewhat like a very large floppy, though with unique constraints).

File systems

Optical disk file systems include ISO 9660 (often known simply as "ISO") and Universal Disk Format (UDF). ISO is most common for CDs and UDF is most common for DVDs.

ISO 9660

Main article: ISO 9660

ISO 9660 is a format mainly used on CDs. The ISO 9660 can be extended with El Torito, Joliet, Rock Ridge, Amiga Extensions to Rock Ridge, or the Apple ISO 9660 Extensions. El Torito makes it possible to boot from a CD. The Joliet file system was made by Microsoft; it makes it possible to have long file names, among other things. Rock Ridge is a system providing file-ownership, fewer restrictions on the file names, and more. Amiga extensions allow use of Amiga-specific attribute bits and comments. The Apple Extensions enables Macintosh-specific creator codes, file type, and so on.

Universal Disk Format

Main article: Universal Disk Format

Universal Disk Format (UDF) can be extended with Mount Rainier packet writing, making it possible to use the disc like a floppy disk. This allows one to easily delete, create, and modify files, without having to write the whole disc again.


A compatibility technology called HighMAT allows visual material on the disc to be recognised, interpreted and supported by electronic play devices.

See also

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.