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Kurdistan Workers' Party

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Title: Kurdistan Workers' Party  
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Subject: 2011–12 Kurdish protests in Turkey, Abdullah Öcalan, Operation Martyr Yalçın, 2015 police raids in Turkey, 2008 Turkish incursion into northern Iraq
Collection: Anti-Government Factions of the Syrian Civil War, Anti-Isil Factions in Iraq, Banned Political Parties in Turkey, Banned Political Parties of Turkey, European Union Designated Terrorist Organizations, Far-Left Politics, Government of Canada Designated Terrorist Organizations, Government of Kazakhstan Designated Terrorist Organizations, Government of New Zealand Designated Terrorist Organizations, Guerrilla Organizations, Kurdish Nationalist Political Parties, Kurdish Organisations, Kurdistan Workers' Party, Libertarian Socialist Organisations, National Liberation Armies, Nationalist Terrorism, Organizations Designated as Terrorist, Organizations Designated as Terrorist by Iran, Organizations Designated as Terrorist by the Turkish Directorate General for Security, Organizations Designated as Terrorist by the United States Government, Organizations Designated as Terrorist in Asia, Organizations Designated as Terrorist in Europe, Rebel Groups in Iraq, Rebel Groups in Turkey, Resistance Movements, Secession in Iraq, Secession in Syria, Secession in Turkey, Terrorism in Turkey, United Kingdom Home Office Designated Terrorist Groups
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Kurdistan Workers' Party

Kurdistan Workers' Party
Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê (PKK)
Leader Murat Karayılan
Abdullah Öcalan
Founded 1978 (1978)
Paramilitary Wing People's Defence Forces (HPG) and Free Women's Units (YJA-STAR)[1]
Ideology Kurdish nationalism
Libertarian socialism[2][3][4][5][6][7]
Libertarian municipalism[8][9]
Democratic confederalism[9][10][11][12][13]
Communalism[9]
Feminism[14][15]
Political position Far-left[16]
International affiliation Koma Civakên Kurdistan
Website
  • .net.pkkonlinewww (PKK)
  • //ku.com.yja-starwww (YJA-STAR)
People's Defence Forces
Hêzên Parastina Gel (HPG)
Leader(s)
Foundation 1984 (1984)[21]
Dates of operation 1984–present
Motives Cultural and political rights for the Kurdish population in Turkey.[22]
Active region(s) Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Western Europe
Ideology Democratic confederalism
Communalism[9]
Notable attacks 1984 PKK attacks
May 24, 1993 PKK ambush
2011 Hakkâri attack
Status Fights against ISIS.[23][24]

Ceasefire with Turkey since 21 March 2013, participating in ongoing peace process; listed as a terrorist organisation by several states and international organisations.
Size over 15,000 active fighters (2014 Turkish claim)[25]
Annual revenue €500 million[26]
Website //eng.com.hezenparastinewww
Free Women's Units
Yekîneyên Jinên Azad ên Star (YJA-STAR)
Dates of operation 1984–present
Active region(s) Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Western Europe
Ideology Democratic confederalism
Feminism (Jinelogy)
Communalism[9]
Status Fights against ISIS.[23][24][27]

Ceasefire with Turkey since 21 March 2013, participating in ongoing peace process; listed as a terrorist organisation by several states and international organisations.
Website //ku.com.yja-starwww

The Kurdistan Workers' Party (

External links

  • Arin, Kubilay Yado, Turkey and the Kurds – From War to Reconciliation? UC Berkeley Center for Right Wing Studies Working Paper Series, March 26, 2015.https://www.academia.edu/11674094/Turkey_and_the_Kurds_From_War_to_Reconciliation
  • Öcalan, Abdullah. Interviews and Speeches [about P.K.K.'s Kurdish cause]. London: Published jointly by Kurdistan Solidarity Committee and Kurdistan Information Centre, 1991. 46 p. Without ISBN

Further reading

  1. ^ "Why is the world ignoring the revolutionary Kurds in Syria?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-03-05. 
  2. ^ Fitzherbert, Yvo (26 August 2014). "A new kind of freedom born in terror". OpenDemocracy. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  3. ^ Kolokotronis, Alexander (2 November 2014). "The No State Solution: Institutionalizing Libertarian Socialism in Kurdistan". New Politics. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  4. ^ Taylor, Rafael (17 August 2014). "The new PKK: unleashing a social revolution in Kurdistan". ROAR Magazine. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  5. ^ Tax, Meredith (22 April 2015). "The Revolution in Rojava". Dissent. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  6. ^ Jones, Owen (10 March 2015). "Why the revolutionary Kurdish fight against Isis deserves our support". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  7. ^ Legard, Sveinung; David Graeber (17 September 2015). "We Have a Lot to Learn". New Compass. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  8. ^ Hozat, Bese (25 November 2013). "Bese Hozat: PKK is a social system today". pkkonline.com. Retrieved 18 June 2015. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Jongerden, Joost. "Rethinking Politics and Democracy in the Middle East" (PDF). Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  10. ^ Öcalan, Abdullah (2011). Democratic Confederalism (PDF).  
  11. ^ Öcalan, Abdullah (2 April 2005). "The declaration of Democratic Confederalism".  
  12. ^ "Bookchin devrimci mücadelemizde yaşayacaktır". Savaş Karşıtları (in Turkish). 26 August 2006. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  13. ^ Wood, Graeme (26 October 2007). "Among the Kurds".  
  14. ^ Sule Toktas (1970-01-01). "Waves of Feminism in Turkey: Kemalist, Islamist and Kurdish Women’s Movements in an Era of Globalization | sule toktas". Academia.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  15. ^ Campos, Paul (2013-01-30). "Kurdistan's Female Fighters". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  16. ^ Halliday, Fred (24 January 2005). The Middle East in International Relations: Power, Politics and Ideology. Cambridge University Press. p. 247.  
  17. ^   Originally published as Karayılan'ı kim niye gönderdi? in Radikal, 11 July 2013.
  18. ^ a b Tahiri, Hussein. The Structure of Kurdish Society and the Struggle for a Kurdish State. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publications 2007. pp 232 ff
  19. ^ Bila, Fikret (7 November 2007). "'"Kenan Evren: 'Kürtçeye ağır yasak koyduk ama hataydı (in Turkish).  
  20. ^ "Ojalan: Which way now?".  
  21. ^ "Terrorist Organization Profiles – START – National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism". Start.umd.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  22. ^ Howard, Michael (13 May 2005). "Radical firebrand who led bloody nationalist war". Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 August 2008. 
  23. ^ a b "'"War against Isis: PKK commander tasked with the defence of Syrian Kurds claims 'we will save Kobani. The Independent. Retrieved 25 June 2015. 
  24. ^ a b "BREAKING: HPG operation in Sinjar; 20 ISIS dead". Retrieved 25 June 2015. 
  25. ^ TCA The PKK Redux: Implications of a Growing Threat at the Wayback Machine (archived July 5, 2008), 15 November 2007
  26. ^ "PKK revenues reach 500 mln euros".  
  27. ^ "ANF – Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firatê". Retrieved 25 June 2015. 
  28. ^ Aras, Ramazan (2013). The Formation of Kurdishness in Turkey: Political Violence, Fear and Pain. Routledge. p. 75.  
  29. ^ Kreyenbroek, Philip G.; Sperl, Stefan, eds. (2005). The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview. Routledge. p. 58.  
  30. ^ "Lice'nin Fis köyünde PKK'nın kuruluşunu kutladılar". Hürriyet. 27 November 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  31. ^ a b Abdullah Öcalan, "Prison Writings: The Roots of Civilisation", 2007, Pluto Press. (p. 243-277)
  32. ^ See an unofficial translation Declaration of Democratic Confederalism in Kurdistan
  33. ^ Terrorist Organization Profile – START – National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. Start.umd.edu. Retrieved on 15 July 2013
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  35. ^ "Rus Aydın: PKK Terör Örgütü Çıkmaza Girdi". Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  36. ^ List of designated terrorist organizations
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  58. ^ "Report Of The Committee Against Torture," United Nations OHCHR, 2004, pages 276–277.
  59. ^ "BDP'nin adı Demokratik Bölgeler Partisi oldu".  
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  61. ^ Kilic, Ecevit (26 October 2008). "Öcalan'la ilk görüşen paşa Çevik Bir". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 4 January 2009. 
  62. ^ Tuğluk, Aysel (27 May 2007). "Sevr travması ve Kürtlerin empatisi".  
  63. ^ "Önderimiz 99'da İmralı'daydı".  
  64. ^ a b Press Center (14 October 2009). "Treasury Designates Three Leaders of the Kongra-Gel as Significant Foreign Narcotics Traffickers".  
  65. ^ "Treasury Designates Five Leaders of the Kongra-Gel as Specially Designated Narcotics Traffickers". United States Department of the Treasury. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  66. ^ Marcus, Aliza (August 2007). Blood and belief: the PKK and the Kurdish fight for independence. New York: New York University Press. pp. 183–184.  
  67. ^ Friedrich, Hans-Peter; Heinz Fromm (18 July 2012). "Verfassungsschutzbericht 2011". Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz. p. 342. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  68. ^ Today's Zaman, 18 October 2011, Tayyar’s new book reveals PKK’s ties with Turkish intelligence
  69. ^ Today's Zaman, 8 November 2008, Tenth hearing of Ergenekon trial held yesterday
  70. ^ Kilic, Ecevit (22 October 2008). "Çarkın'ın itiraflarına soruşturma". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 8 January 2009. 
  71. ^ Today's Zaman, 22 August 2009, Ersöz and PKK's Bayık kept in touch
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  73. ^ Ute Reissner and Justus Leicht (12 March 1999). "The politics of the PKK (Kurdish Workers Party): A balance sheet". World Socialist. ICFI. Retrieved 29 June 2008. 
  74. ^ "Eski Dışişleri Bakanı Hikmet Çetin: PKK'nın temeli 12 Eylül'de atıldı" (in Turkish).  
  75. ^ Immigration Appeals: 2nd – 3rd Quarter (2004), by Great Britain Immigration Appeal Tribunal
  76. ^ McDowall, David (August 2011). A Modern History of the Kurds. p. 443. 
  77. ^ Matovic, Violeta, Suicide Bombers Who's Next, Belgrade, The National Counter Terrorism Committee, ISBN 978-86-908309-2-3
  78. ^ Cordesman, Anthony H. (1999). Iraq and the War of Sanctions: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Greenwood Publishing Group.  
  79. ^ "Group Profile: Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)".  
  80. ^ "Turkey, Iran to Cooperate Against Kurdish Rebels". Voanews.com. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  81. ^ Güneş Murat Tezcür,"Prospects for Resolution of the Kurdish Question: A Realist Perspective," Insight Turkey 15 (Spring 2013): 69–84.
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  83. ^ a b "Peace at the end of a long PKK struggle?". Al Jazeera. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  84. ^ "Planned PKK pullout heats up Turkey politics". Retrieved 25 June 2015. 
  85. ^ a b "Kurds dare to hope as PKK fighters' ceasefire with Turkey takes hold". The Guardian. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  86. ^ "PKK sets date for withdrawal from Turkey". Retrieved 25 June 2015. 
  87. ^ a b c d "Baghdad opposes PKK armed groups in Iraq". Al Jazeera. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  88. ^ PKK fighters arrive in Iraq under peace deal – Middle East. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved on 15 July 2013.
  89. ^ "PKK sets ultimatum for Turkey peace deal – Europe". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  90. ^ "PKK threatens to renew fight in Turkey – Europe". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  91. ^ "Iraq's Kurdistan backs Turkey peace efforts – Middle East". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  92. ^ "PKK joins battle against Isil". GulfNews.com. 2014-07-15. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  93. ^ Dorian Jones. "Turkish Kurds Want Ankara to Declare Stance on ISIL". Voanews.com. Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
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  103. ^ Capelouto, Susanna; Tuysuz, Gul (July 25, 2015). "Turkey arrests hundreds of suspected terrorists, Prime Minister says". CNN. 'We will not stay silent in the face of those who kill our police officers in their sleep,' Davutoglu said, referring to PKK's assassination of two Turkish police officers Wednesday. [...] The statement also referred to the slaying of the two police officers, calling it an act of "retribution" carried out by "local branches" without orders from central PKK command. 
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  110. ^ "Blackwater admits employees illegally sold weapons," Tehran Times, 23 September 2007.
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  135. ^ "Denmark, again? Now it is blamed for hosting Kurdish TV station.".  
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  137. ^ "Avusturya teröristi uçakla Irak'a gönderdi".  
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References

Notes

See also

Notably, the government of Switzerland has explicitly rejected Turkish demands to blacklist the PKK,[170] though it has taken its own measures to monitor and restrict the group's activities on Swiss soil, including banning the collection of funds for the group in November 2008.[171]

Australia,[156][157] Austria,[158] Azerbaijan,[159] Canada,[160] Germany,[161] Iran,[162] Japan,[163] Kazakhstan,[164] Kyrgyzstan,[165] the Netherlands,[166] New Zealand,[167] Spain,[168] and Syria.[169]

The following other individual countries have listed or otherwise labelled the PKK in an official capacity as a terrorist organization:

[155] (PRC).China and the group is also not included in the official terror blacklist of [154] has long ignored Turkish pressure to ban the PKK,Russia On the other hand, [153] However, French courts often refuse to extradite captured individuals accused of PKK connections to Turkey due to technicalities in French law, frustrating Turkish authorities.[152] The

The military alliance NATO has declared the PKK to be a terrorist group;[143] Turkey has been a member of NATO since 1952, and fields the group's second-largest armed contingent. Closely tied to NATO,[144] the European Union—which Turkey aspires to join—officially lists the PKK as having "been involved in terrorist acts" and proscribes it as part of its Common Foreign and Security Policy.[145] First designated in 2002, the PKK was ordered to be removed from the EU terror list on 3 April 2008 by the European Court of First Instance on the grounds that the EU failed to give a proper justification for listing it in the first place.[146] However, EU officials dismissed the ruling, stating that the PKK would remain on the list regardless of the legal decision.[147] Most European Union member states have not individually listed the PKK as a terrorist group.

The PKK has been placed on the terrorism blacklists of Turkey and a number of allied governments and organizations.[142]

Designation as a terrorist group

Support of various European states
Despite Brussels' designation of the group as a terrorist organization, the EU continues to permit the broadcasting of the organization's networks on the Hot Bird 3 satellite owned by the French company Eutelsat. MEDYA TV started transmissions from studios in Belgium via a satellite uplink from France. MEDYA TV's license was revoked by the French authorities. A few weeks later Roj TV began transmissions from Denmark. It has also been argued that the Netherlands and Belgium have supported the PKK by allowing its training camps to function in their respective territories. On 22 November 1998, Hanover's criminal police reported that three children had been trained by the PKK for guerrilla warfare in camps in the Netherlands and Belgium.[133] After the death of Theo van Gogh, with increasing attention on domestic security concerns, the Dutch police raided the 'PKK paramilitary camp' in the Dutch village of Liempde and arrested 29 people in November 2004, but all were soon released.[134] Denmark allows Kurdish satellite television stations (such as ROJ-TV), which Turkey claims has links with the PKK, to operate in Denmark and broadcast into Turkey.[135]
Various PKK leaders, including Hidir Yalcin, Riza Altun, Zubeyir Aydar, and Ali Haydar Kaytan all lived in Europe and moved freely. The free movement was achieved by strong ties with influential persons. MP Heinrich Lummer and German intelligence officials. CDU initiated contact with high-ranking German Damascus On 30 September 1995, while Öcalan was in Syria, [137] summoned the Austrian ambassador and condemned Austria's action.Abdullah Gül arrest warrant on his name.. Turkish foreign minister Interpol for Ali Rıza Altun, a suspected key figure with an Iraq arranged a flight to Austria After harboring him for some time, [136]
The Chief of the Turkish General Staff during 2007, General NATO, and EU made statements of serious commitment, to this day the necessary measures had not been taken.[138] According to Büyükanıt; "this conduct on one side has encouraged the terrorists, on the other side it assisted in widening their activities.[138] "
ISRO, says that US support of the PKK undermines the US War on Terrorism.[139] Seymour Hersh claimed that the U.S. supported PEJAK, the Iranian branch of the PKK.[140] The head of the PKK's militant arm, Murat Karayılan, claimed that Iran attempted to recruit the PKK to attack coalition forces, adding that Kurdish guerrillas had launched a clandestine war in north-western Iran, ambushing Iranian troops.[141]
United Kingdom
[132]
Soviet Union and Russia
[130] According to the former states that list PKK as a terrorist group despite intense Turkish pressure.
Republic of Cyprus
Support of the Republic of Cyprus was alleged when Abdullah Öcalan was caught with a Cypriot passport under the name of Mavros Lazaros, a nationalist reporter.
Armenia
Turkish and Azeri sources have alleged in 2007 that PKK maintains camps in the Armenian-controlled Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.[127] Armenia's Deputy Foreign Minister Arman Kirakosyan called these allegations "sheer nonsense" in 2008.[128] In May 2008 a commentary in the right-wing newspaper Yeni Şafak claimed that the PKK's leadership, "perhaps feeling insecure in northern Iraq, was mulling a move to Nagorno-Karabakh." In response, Armenia's Foreign Ministry press spokesman Vladimir Karapetian stated, "The unsubstantiated rumors about the intentions on the side of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) to move to Nagorno-Karabakh and controlled territories cannot be called anything less than another provocation."[129]
Iran
Party for a Free Life in Kurdistan used Iran's supply of resources to the PKK began to be used on its own soil.
Syria
From early 1979 to 1999 [111][126]
Greece
According to Ali Külebi, president of an Ankara-based nationalist think tank TUSAM, "It is obvious that the PKK is supported by Greece, considering the PKK's historical development with major support from Greece." Külebi alleged in 2007 that PKK militants received training at a base in [125], that "Greece has for years supported the PKK movement. They even gave us arms and rockets. Greek officers gave guerrilla training and explosives training to our militants" at a camp in Lavrion, Greece.Hürriyet During his trial, Öcalan admitted, as quoted in [124]

At the height of its campaign, the organization received support from many countries. According to Turkey, countries the PKK has previously/currently received support from include: Greece,[116][117] Iran,[118] Iraq,[119] Russia[120] and Syria.[118] The level of support given has changed throughout this period. Official Turkish sources also allege cooperation between the PKK and the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA).[121]

International support

[115] In 2008, according to information provided by the Intelligence Resource Program of the

Human resources

Percentage of the popular vote won by the pro-Kurdish Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) in the 2015 Turkish general election. "The HDP’s elections results, which are a proxy indicator of popular support for the PKK, show that the group has followers throughout the country."[114]

A report by INTERPOL published in 1992 states that the PKK, along with nearly 178 Kurdish organizations were suspected of illegal drug trade involvement. Also INTERPOL's chief narcotics officer Iqbal Hussain Rizvi stated that the PKK was also heavily involved in drug trafficking[113] Members of the PKK have been designated narcotics traffickers by the U.S. Department of the Treasury.[64]

Parties and concerts are organized by branch groups.[111] Additionally, it is believed that the PKK earns money through the sale of various publications, as well as receiving revenues from legitimate businesses owned by the organization, and from protection rackets from Kurdish-owned businesses in Western Europe.[112] Besides affiliate organizations, there are sympathizer organizations such as the Confederation of Kurdish Associations in Europe (KON-KURD, headquartered in Brussels) and the International Kurdish Businessmen Union (KAR-SAZ, in Rotterdam) which constantly exchanges information and perform legitimate or semi-legitimate commercial activities and donations.

Funding

Resources

[110] The arms were claimed to be part of [109] US envoy denied these claims.[108] Four members of the organization, who handed themselves over to authorities after escaping from camps in northern Iraq, claimed they had seen two U.S. armored vehicles deliver weapons, which was widely reported and further stoked suspicions about U.S. policy in Iraq.

The choice and origin of the traceable weapons (July 2007)[107]
Type Quantity Sources
AK-47 Kalashnikovs 4,500 71.6% from the USSR, 14.7% from China, 3.6% from Hungary, 3.6% from Bulgaria
Rifles[nb 1] 5,713 of (959 traceable) 45.2% from Russia, 13.2% from United Kingdom, and 9.4% from United States.
Rocket launchers 1,610 (313 traceable) 85% from Russia, 5.4% from Iraq, and 2.5% from China in origin.
Pistols 2,885 (2,208 traceable) 21.9% from Czechoslovakia, 20.2% from Spain, 19.8% from Italy
Grenades 3,490 (136 traceable) 72% from Russia, 19.8% from United States, 8% from Germany,
Land mines 11,568 (8,015 traceable) 60.8% from Italy, 28.3% from Russia, 6.2% from Germany

In July 2007, the weapons captured between 1984 and 2007 from the PKK operatives and their origins published by the Turkish General Staff indicates that the operatives erased some of the serial numbers from their weapons. The total number of weapons and the origins for traceable ones were:[107]

Weapons

The PKK's ideology claims to support equality of gender. At its establishment, it included a small number of female fighters. Over time, however, this number has increased significantly and by the early 1990s, 30 percent of its 17,000 armed fighting forces were women.[105] In much of rural Turkey, male-dominated tribal structures, and conservative 1960 as guest workers.[105] It was reported by a Turkish university that 88% of the subjects claimed that equality was a key objective.[106] In 2007, approximately 1,100 of 4,500–5,000 total members were women.[105]

Recruiting

The areas in which the group operates are generally mountainous rural areas and dense urban areas. The mountainous terrain offers an advantage to members of the PKK by allowing them to hide in a network of caves and making military air operations, especially helicopter use, hazardous for the Turkish Armed Forces.

Tactics

In July 2015, Turkey became involved in the war against ISIL. While they were doing so, they decided to bomb PKK targets in Iraq.[101] The bombings came a few days after PKK was suspected to have assassinated two Turkish police officers in Ceylanpınar, Şanlıurfa, accused by the PKK of having links with ISIS after the 2015 Suruç bombing.[102][103] The PKK has blamed Turkey for breaking the truce by bombing the PKK in 2014 and 2015 continuesly. PKK announced one-sided ceasefire in October 2015 election time, but government refused. The leadership of Iraqi Kurdistan has condemned the Turkish air strikes in its autonomous region in the north of Iraq.[104]

July 2015-present: Renewed rebellion

Turkish military statements claimed that the bombings were in response to PKK attacks on a Turkish military outpost in the area. The Firat news agency, which Al Jazeera describes as "close to the PKK", claimed that Turkish forces had been shelling the PKK positions for days beforehand and that the PKK action had itself been retaliation for those artillery strikes.[100]

A number of Turkish Kurds rallied in large-scale street protests, demanding that the government in Ankara take more forceful action to combat IS and to enable Kurdish militants already engaged against IS to more freely move and resupply. These protests included a PKK call for its supporters to turn out.[98] Clashes between police and protesters killed at least 31 people. The Turkish government continued to restrict PKK-associated fighters' movement across its borders, arresting 260 People's Protection Units fighters who were moving back into Turkey. On 14 October, Turkish Air Force fighter-bombers attacked PKK positions in the vicinity of Daglica, Hakkari Province.[99]

The PKK engaged the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) forces in Syria in mid-July 2014[92] as part of the Syrian Civil War. In August the PKK engaged IS in Northern Iraq and pressured the Government of Turkey to take a stand against IS.[93][94] PKK forces helped "tens of thousands of Yazidis escape an encircled Mount Sinjar."[95] In September 2014, during the Siege of Kobane, the PKK engaged with Islamic State forces in Syria, which resulted in conflicts with Turks on the border and an end to a cease-fire that had been in place over a year.[96] PKK snipers were active fighting ISIL on the front line in Sinjar in 2015.[97]

2014 action against Islamic State and renewed tensions in Turkey

Iraqi Kurdistan President Masoud Barzani backed the initiative saying, alongside Erdogan: "This is a historic visit for me ... We all know it would have been impossible to speak here 15 or 20 years ago. Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan has taken a very brave step towards peace. I want my Kurdish and Turkish brothers to support the peace process."[91]

On 29 July 2013, the PKK issued an ultimatum in saying that the peace deal would fail if reforms were not begun to be implemented within a month.[89] In October, Cemil Bayik warned that unless Turkey resumed the peace process, the PKK would resume operations against it. He also accused Turkey of waging a proxy war against Kurds during the Syrian civil war by supporting other rebels who were fighting them.[90]

It is estimated that between 1,500 and 2,000 PKK fighters resided in Turkey at the time. The withdrawal process was expected to take several months even if Iraq does not intervene to try to stop it.[87] On 14 May 2013, the first groups of 13 male and female fighters entered Iraq's Heror area near the Metina mountain after leaving Turkey. They carried with them Kalashnikov assault rifles, light machine guns and rocket-propelled grenade launchers before a welcoming ceremony.[88]

The withdrawal began as planned with groups of fighters crossing the border from southeastern Turkey to northern Iraq.[83] Iraqi leadership in Baghdad, however, declared that it would not accept armed groups into its territory. "The Iraqi government welcomes any political and peaceful settlement", read an official statement. "[But] it does not accept the entry of armed groups to its territories that can be used to harm Iraq's security and stability."[87] The prospect of armed Kurdish forces in northern Iraq threatens to increase tensions between the region and Baghdad who are already at odds over certain oil producing territory. PKK spokesman Ahmet Deniz sought to ease concerns stating the plan would boost democracy. "The [peace] process is not aimed against anyone," he said "and there is no need for concerns that the struggle will take on another format and pose a threat to others."[87]

In late 2012, the Turkish government began secret talks with Öcalan for a ceasefire.[83] To facilitate talks, government officials transmitted letters between Öcalan in jail to PKK leaders in northern Iraq.[84] On 21 March 2013, a ceasefire was announced.[85] On 25 April, it was announced that the PKK would leave Turkey. Commander Murat Karayilan remarked "As part of ongoing preparations, the withdrawal will begin on May 8, 2013. Our forces will use their right to retaliate in the event of an attack, operation or bombing against our withdrawing guerrilla forces and the withdrawal will immediately stop."[86] The semi-autonomous Kurdish region of Iraq welcomed the idea of refugees from its northern neighbor.[87] The BDP held meetings across the region to explain the pending withdrawal to concerned citizens. "The 8th of May is a day we both anticipate and fear," explained party leader Pinar Yilmaz. "We don't trust the government at all. Many people here are afraid that once the guerrillas are gone, the Turkish military will crack down on us again."[85]

2013-15 Peace process

During the Syrian civil war, the Kurds in Syria have established control over their own region with the help of the Turkish Kurdistan Workers' Party as well as with support from the Kurdistan Regional Government in Irbil, under President Massoud Barzani.[82]

2012 was the most violent year in the armed conflict between the Turkish State and PKK since 1999. At least 541 individuals lost their lives as a result of the clashes including 316 militants. In contrast, 152 individuals lost their lives in 2009 when the Turkish government initiated negotiations with the PKK leadership.[81] The failure of this negotiations contributed to violence that were particularly intensified in 2012. The PKK encouraged by the rising power of the Syrian Kurds increased its attacks in the same year.

While the fight against the Turkish security forces between 2004 and 2010 failed to achieve any significant military progress, the PKK and its ancillary organizations continued to enjoy substantial support among the Kurds of Turkey. In 2005, the original name of the organization PKK was restored. Turkey's struggle against the Kongra-Gel/PKK was marked by increased violence across Turkey in 2005. In the Southeast, Turkish security forces were active in the struggle against the Kongra-Gel/PKK. There were bombings and attempted bombings in resort areas in western Turkey and Istanbul, some of which resulted in civilian casualties. A Kurdish separatist group calling itself the Kurdish Freedom Falcons (TAK), widely believed to be affiliated with the Kongra-Gel/PKK, claimed responsibility for many of these attacks. In 2006 alone, the PKK claimed over 500 victims. In October 2006, the KGK/PKK declared a unilateral cease-fire that slowed the intensity and pace of its attacks, but attacks continued in response to Turkish security forces significant counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations, especially in the southeast. On 21 October 2011 Iranian foreign minister Ali Akbar Salehi announced Iran would co-operate with Turkey in some military operations against the PKK.[80]

Kongra-Gel called off the cease-fire at the start of June 2004, saying Turkish security forces had refused to respect the truce. Turkish security forces were increasingly involved in clashes with Kurdish separatist fighters. Ankara claimed that about 2,000 Kurdish fighters had crossed into Turkey from hideouts in mountainous northern Iraq in early June 2004.

Second insurgency 2004-2012

In January 2004 the US Government announced that Kurdistan Workers Party and its aliases, the Kurdistan Freedom and Democracy Congress and the Kurdistan People's Congress, were terrorist organizations that were designated as such under US law. The Coalition Provisional Authority, coalition forces and Iraqi security forces would treat the PKK/KADEK/Kongra-Gel as terrorists. Although Kongra-Gel included some former militants, the group in recent years had developed a political platform that renounced terrorism.

In late 2003, the group sought to engineer another political face-lift, renaming the group Kongra-Gel (KGK) and brandishing its "peaceful" intentions, while continuing to commit attacks and refuse disarmament. The organization was said to be involved in drug trafficking and acts of terrorism in Turkey, and it frequently changed its name.

In April 2002 at its 8th Party Congress, the PKK changed its name to the Kurdistan Freedom and Democracy Congress (KADEK) and proclaimed a commitment to nonviolent activities in support of Kurdish rights. A PKK/KADEK spokesman stated that its armed wing, The People's Defense Force, would not disband or surrender its weapons for reasons of self-defense, however. This statement by the PKK/KADEK avowing it would not lay down its arms underscores that the organization maintained its capability to carry out armed operations. PKK/KADEK established a new ruling council in April, its membership virtually identical to the PKK's Presidential Council. The PKK/KADEK did not conduct an armed attack in 2002; however, the group periodically issued veiled threats that it will resume violence if the conditions of its imprisoned leader are not improved, and it continued its military training and planning.

The third phase (1999–2012), after the capture of Öcalan, according to Maoist theory of people's war claims that conventional fighting should be established to seize cities, overthrow the government and take control of the country. This stage has never been achieved. In effect, after the capture of Öcalan, activities of the organization never reached previous levels. At the same time, the PKK continued to heavily recruit new members and sustain its fighting force.

Cease fire 1999–2004

All in all, this low-intensity conflict has lasted more than 30 years. The PKK has observed ceasefires.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, in an effort to win increased support from the Kurdish peasantry, the PKK altered its leftist secular ideology to better accommodate and accept Islamic beliefs. The group also abandoned its previous strategy of attacking Kurdish civilians, focusing instead on government and tourist targets.[79] In its campaign, the organization has been accused of carrying out atrocities against both Turkish and Kurdish civilians and its actions have been criticised by human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch. Actions of the Turkish state in the past have also been criticised by these same groups.

PKK members in Sweden came into conflict with the Swedish government, and in 1986 PKK became the first main suspect for the assassination of Olof Palme. The illegal investigation of these suspicions led to the Ebbe Carlsson affair.

In the second phase (1984–1999), which followed the return of civilian rule in 1983, escalating attacks were made on the government's military and vital institutions all over the country. The objective was to destabilise Turkish authority through a long, low-intensity confrontation. In addition to skirmishing with Turkish military and police forces and local village guards, the PKK has conducted suicide bombing on government and police installations, as well as at local tourist sites.[77] Kidnapping and assassination against government officials and Kurdish tribal leaders who were named as puppets of the state were performed as well. Widespread sabotages were continued from the first stage. PKK also carried out kidnappings of Western tourists, primarily in Istanbul but also at different resorts. Its actions have taken place mainly in Turkey and against Turkish targets in other countries, although it has on occasions co-operated with other Kurdish nationalist paramilitary groups in neighboring states, such as Iraq and Iran.[78] PKK has also attacked Turkish diplomatic and commercial facilities across Western Europe. In effect, the Turkish state has led a series of counter-insurgency operations against the PKK, accompanied by political measures, starting with an explicit denunciation of separatism in the 1982 Constitution, and including proclamation of the state of emergency in various PKK-controlled territories starting in 1983 (when the military relinquished political control to the civilians). This series of administrative reforms against terrorism included in 1985 the creation of village guard system by the then prime minister Turgut Özal who is of partial Kurdish descent.

Armed rebellion 1984–1999

During this time, the organization argued that its violent actions were explained by the need to defend Kurds in the context of what it considered as the massive cultural suppression of Kurdish identity (including the 1983 Turkish Language Act Ban) and cultural rights carried out by other governments of the region.[76]

. 1980 military coup In the whole Turkey, this period was characterized by violent clashes which culminated in the [75][74] In the first phase (1978–1984), the PKK tried to gain the support of the Kurdish population. It attacked the machinery of government and distributed propaganda in the region. PKK tactics were based on

Political activity 1978–1984

During its establishment in the mid-1970s, amid Bekaa valley in part of ex-Syrian-controlled Lebanon. After 1984, PKK began to use Maoist theory of people's war.[72][73] There are three phases in this theory. The militant base during the initial years was coming from different sources, so the first two phases were diffused to each other.

Activities

According to official figures, nearly 2000 PKK members became itirafçı ("confessors") after their arrest. Some were persuaded or coerced to play an active role in the conflict, particularly under the direction of the Turkish Gendarmerie's unofficial JİTEM unit.

A witness to the trials testified that General Levent Ersöz, former head of JITEM, had frequent contact with PKK commander Cemil Bayık.[71]

Former police special forces member Ayhan Çarkın alleged that the state, using the clandestine Ergenekon network, colluded with militant groups such as the PKK, Dev-Sol, and Hezbollah, with the goal of profiting from the war.[70]

[69] Öcalan has admitted making use of money given by the MIT to the PKK, which he says was provided as part of MIT efforts to control him.[68]

During the controversial Ergenekon trials in Turkey, allegations have been made that the PKK is linked to elements of the Turkish intelligence community.

Alleged links with Turkish intelligence

The [67]

According to research conducted by journalist Aliza Marcus, the PKK did rely substantially on support from Kurdish smugglers in the region to fund themselves. A number of these were tacitly known to have been participating in international drug trafficking even before the 1980s, and some did indeed end up contributing money to the PKK throughout the course of the conflict, whether for ideological or economic reasons. In Europe, a few PKK supporters reportedly used their influence and connections to sell drugs on the side, and ended up contributing some of the money made back to the organization, and party activists short on funds were often not hesitant to seek donations from Kurds known to be involved in the narcotics trade. But though it was true that the PKK may not have been very concerned with the sources of donations (given the much more pressing need to buy supplies), "it does not seem that the PKK, as an organisation, directly produced or traded in narcotics."[66]

However, according to Kurdish activists all these are allegations used by the US administration in order to de-legitimate PKK assisting Turkey as a major ally. On the contrary, many activists claim that the Turkish intelligence service (MIT) has been involved in drug trafficking in the border with Iran similarly to the Iranian intelligence. Some cases like the Susurluk scandal case is one of the cases of drug trafficking by high Turkish officials that the Turkish MIT has hidden its details.

On 14 October 2009, the U.S. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) targeted the senior leadership of the PKK, designating Murat Karayılan, the head of the PKK, and high-ranking members Ali Riza Altun and Zübeyir Aydar as significant foreign narcotics traffickers.[64] On 20 April 2011, the U.S. Department of the Treasury announced the designation of PKK founders Cemil Bayik and Duran Kalkan and other high-ranking members as Specially Designated Narcotics Traffickers (SDNT) pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (Kingpin Act). Pursuant to the Kingpin Act, the designation freezes any assets the designees may have under U.S. jurisdiction and prohibits U.S. persons from conducting financial or commercial transactions with these individuals.[65]

Alleged drug trafficking

Several parliamentarians and other elected representatives have been jailed for speaking in Kurdish, carrying Kurdish colors or otherwise "promoting separatism", most famous among them being Leyla Zana.[63]

Kurdish politician Abdülmelik Fırat claims that Democratic Society Party (DTP) was founded by PKK, and that 80 percent of Kurds do not vote for this party.[61] However, senior DTP leaders maintain that they support a unified Turkey within a democratic framework. Aysel Tuğluk published an article in Radikal in May 2007 as the co-president of DTP, to prove that claim.[62]

Political organizations established in Turkey are banned from propagating or supporting separatism. Several political parties supporting Kurdish rights have been banned on this pretext. The constitutional court claimed to find direct links between the HEP/DEP/HADEP and the PKK. In 2008 the DTP-party was prosecuted by the constitutional court.

The organization had sympathizer parties in the HEP/DEP/HADEP/DEHAP/DTP and the latest Peace and Democracy Party (BDP), which later changed its name to Democratic Regions Party (DBP) on 11 July 2014,[59] have been accused of sympathizing with the PKK, since they have refused to brand it as a terrorist group. As of June 2007 report by the European Union Institute for Security Studies stated that "It is an obvious secret that DTP is connected to PKK in a way and PKK is a terrorist group."[60]

Political representation

Former flag of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (1978–1995)
Second flag of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (1995–2002)
Flag used by the KADEK (2002–2003)
Flag used by the Kongra-Gel(KGK) (2003–2005)

There are also training camps in other countries: the organization's training camp near Eindhoven in the Netherlands, was well-hidden in the woods, but was dismantled. The following raids resulted in arrests and seizure of materials in The Hague, Rotterdam, Eindhoven and Capelle aan den IJssel.[57] There was another training camp in Belgium, evidence that the organization uses training camps in Europe for political and ideological training.[58]

In 2007, the organization was believed to have camps strung out through the mountains that straddle the border between Turkey and Iraq, including in Sinaht, Haftanin, Kanimasi and Zap.[56] The organization developed two types of camps. The border camps were used as forward bases from which militants infiltrate into Turkey. The units deployed there are highly mobile and the camps have only minimal infrastructure.[56] The other camps, in the Qandil Mountains, have more developed infrastructure—including a field hospital, electricity generators and a large proportion of the PKK's lethal and non-lethal supplies.[56]

. Instead of a single training camp which could be easily destroyed, the organization created many small camps. During this period the organization set up a fully functioning enclave with training camps, storage facilities, and reconnaissance and communications centers. Operation Provide Comfort At the time, North Iraq was experiencing vacuum of control after [55] This main camp moved to north Iraq in 1998, under intensive pressure, after Syria expelled Öcalan and shut down all camps established in the region.[55][54] The first training camp was established in 1982 in

Training camps

Fehman Huseyin, a Syrian Kurd, in charge of the movement's military operations signifying the long-standing solidarity among Kurds from all parts of Kurdistan.[53]

[52] However, [50] The PKK has multiple heads in various West European countries.

Organization

During the 1980s the movement included and cooperated with other ethnic groups, including ethnic Turks, who were following the radical left.[48]:127 The organization initially aimed to establish a fully independent Kurdistan covering land in Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran.[48]:129

[31] and what Öcalan dubs "Democratic Confederalism".[49] The organization initially presented itself as part of the worldwide :127[48] The organization originated in the 1970s from the radical left and drew its leaders, members from other existing leftist groups, mainly Dev-Genç.

Ideology

[47] At the same time, the PKK was blacklisted in many countries. On 2 April 2004, the [46] With reduced security concerns, the Turkish parliament began a controlled process of dismantling the legal control, using the term "normalization" or "rapprochement," depending on the sides of the issue. It partially relaxed the bans on broadcasting and publishing in the Kurdish language – although significant barriers remained.

Beginning with the mid-1990s, the organization lost the upper hand in its operations as a consequence of a change of tactics by Turkey and Syria's steady abandonment of support for the group. From 1996 to 1999, it also conducted a series of 14 suicide bombings, 10 of which were carried out by women.[42][43] In the late 1990s, Turkey increased the pressure and the undeclared war between Turkey and Syria ended open Syrian support.[44] In 1999, Öcalan was captured, prosecuted and sentenced to death, but this was later commuted to life imprisonment as part of the government's seeking European Union membership.[45]

Starting in 1984, the PKK transformed into a paramilitary group, using training camps located in France. It launched attacks and bombings against governmental installations, the military, and various "institutions of the state" — some of which were connected to the Southeastern Anatolia Project. The PKK became less centralized, taking up operations in a variety of European and Middle Eastern countries, especially Germany and France. The PKK has attacked civilian and military targets in various countries, such as Turkey, France, Belgium and Iraq.[40][41]

The to another stage, with members (such as Sakine Cansız, one of the co-founders[38]) being executed, doing jail time, being subject to capital punishment, or fleeing to Syria. On 10 November 1980, the PKK bombed the Turkish Consulate in Strasbourg, France in a joint operation with the Armenian radical group ASALA, which they claimed as the beginning of a "fruitful collaboration."[39]

In the early 1970s, the organization's core group was made up largely of students led by Abdullah Öcalan ("Apo") in Ankara. The group soon shifted its focus to the large Kurdish population in south-east Turkey. A meeting on 25 November 1978, in a tea house near Diyarbakır is considered the founding meeting.[38] On 27 November 1978, the group adopted the name Kurdistan Workers' Party. Espousing a radical left, Marxist ideology, the group took part in violent conflicts with right-wing entities as a part of the political chaos in Turkey at the time. In 1979, as an act of "propaganda of the deed," the group tried to assassinate the Kurdish tribal leader Mehmet Celal Bucak. They claimed that he exploited the peasants, and collaborated with Turkey. This marked a period of intense urban warfare among other radical political elements.

History

Contents

  • History 1
  • Ideology 2
  • Organization 3
    • Training camps 3.1
    • Political representation 3.2
    • Alleged drug trafficking 3.3
    • Alleged links with Turkish intelligence 3.4
  • Activities 4
    • Political activity 1978–1984 4.1
    • Armed rebellion 1984–1999 4.2
    • Cease fire 1999–2004 4.3
    • Second insurgency 2004-2012 4.4
    • 2013-15 Peace process 4.5
      • 2014 action against Islamic State and renewed tensions in Turkey 4.5.1
    • July 2015-present: Renewed rebellion 4.6
  • Tactics 5
    • Recruiting 5.1
    • Weapons 5.2
  • Resources 6
    • Funding 6.1
    • Human resources 6.2
    • International support 6.3
  • Designation as a terrorist group 7
  • See also 8
  • Notes 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12

has not listed the PKK as a terrorist organisation. United Nations Also, the [37][36][35] The PKK is listed as a [33]).ARGK (Kurdistan National Liberty Army), which was formerly called the HPG (People's Defence Force The name PKK is usually used interchangeably for the name of its armed wing, the

In 2013, the PKK declared a ceasefire agreement and began slowly withdrawing its fighters to the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq as part of the so-called "solution process" between the Turkish state and the long-disenfranchised Kurdish minority.

The democratic confederalism of Kurdistan is not a State system, it is the democratic system of a people without a State... It takes its power from the people and adopts to reach self-sufficiency in every field including the economy.

Öcalan described the need for a democratic confederalism and went on to say: [32] leading the party to adopt his new political platform of "Democratic Confederalism" (influenced strongly by the [31] However, since his capture and imprisonment in 1999, the leader of the PKK, Abdullah Öcalan, has fully abandoned Marxism–Leninism,

Since 1984 the PKK has waged an armed struggle against the Turkish state for cultural and political rights and self-determination for the Kurds in Turkey,[18] who comprise between 10% and 25% of the population and have been subjected to repression for decades.[29] The group was founded in 1978 in the village of Fis (near Lice) by a group of Kurdish students led by Abdullah Öcalan.[30] The PKK's ideology was originally a fusion of revolutionary socialism and Kurdish nationalism, seeking the foundation of an independent, Marxist–Leninist state in the region, which was to be known as Kurdistan.

[28]

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