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Jack W. Szostak

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Title: Jack W. Szostak  
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Subject: Carol W. Greider, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, List of female Nobel laureates, 2009, List of Australian Nobel laureates
Collection: 1952 Births, American Biologists, American Geneticists, American Nobel Laureates, British Emigrants to the United States, British People of Polish Descent, Canadian Nobel Laureates, Cornell University Alumni, Harvard Medical School Faculty, Howard Hughes Medical Investigators, Living People, McGill University Alumni, Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences, Molecular Biologists, Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine, Recipients of the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, Winners of the Heineken Prize
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Jack W. Szostak

Jack William Szostak
Szostak at the 2010 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting
Born (1952-11-09) November 9, 1952
London, United Kingdom
Residence United States
Citizenship Canada
Fields Biology
Institutions Harvard Medical School
Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Alma mater McGill University
Cornell University
Thesis Specific binding of a synthetic oligonucleotide to the yeast iso-1 cytochrome c̲ mRNA and gene (1977)
Doctoral advisor Ray Wu
Notable students David Bartel, Jennifer Doudna, Terry Orr-Weaver, Andrew Murray, Rachel Green
Notable awards Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (2009)
Lasker Award (2006)
NAS Award in Molecular Biology (1994)

Jack William Szostak (born November 9, 1952)[1] is a Canadian American[2] biologist of Polish British descent and Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and Alexander Rich Distinguished Investigator at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. He was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Elizabeth Blackburn and Carol W. Greider, for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Research 2
  • Awards and honors 3
  • Notes 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Early life

Szostak grew up in Montreal and Ottawa. Although Szostak does not speak Polish, he stated in an interview with Wprost weekly that he remembers his Polish roots.[3] He attended Riverdale High School (Quebec) and graduated at the age of 15 with the scholars prize. He graduated with a B.Sc in cell biology from McGill University at the age of 19. In 1970, as an undergraduate, he participated in The Jackson Laboratory's Summer Student Program under the mentorship of Dr. Chen K. Chai. He completed his PhD in biochemistry at Cornell University (advisor Prof. Ray Wu[4]) before moving to Harvard Medical School to start his own lab at the Sydney Farber Cancer Institute. He credits Ruth Sager for giving him his job there when he had little yet to show. In 1984 Howard Goodman lured him away to Massachusetts General Hospital and the Department of Molecular Biology. He was granted tenure and a full professorship at Harvard Medical School in 1988.

Research

Szostak has made contributions to the field of genetics. He is credited with the construction of the world's first yeast artificial chromosome. That achievement helped scientists to map the location of genes in mammals and to develop techniques for manipulating genes. His achievements in this area are also instrumental to the Human Genome Project.

His discoveries have helped to clarify the events that lead to chromosomal recombination—the reshuffling of genes that occurs during meiosis—and the function of telomeres, the specialized DNA sequences at the tips of chromosomes.

In the early 90s his laboratory shifted its research direction and focused on studying RNA enzymes, which had been recently discovered by Cech and Altman. He developed the technique of in vitro evolution of RNA (also developed independently by Gerald Joyce) which enables the discovery of RNAs with desired functions through successive cycles of selection, amplification and mutation. He isolated the first aptamer (term he used for the first time). He isolated RNA enzymes with RNA ligase activity directly from random sequence (project of David Bartel).

Currently his lab focuses on the challenges of understanding the origin of life on Earth, and the construction of artificial cellular life in the laboratory. [5]

Awards and honors

Szostak has received several awards and honors for his contributions. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences and New York Academy of Sciences. He has received the following awards:

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.bookrags.com/Jack_William_Szostak
  2. ^ http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2009/press.html
  3. ^ I want to get to know first steps of evolution - Interview with Jack Szostak (in Polish) "Moi pradziadowie wyemigrowali z Polski do USA. Ja urodziłem się w Londynie, a potem mieszkałem w Kanadzie. Niestety, nie mówię po polsku, ale chętnie przyznaje się do swoich polskich korzeni"( English translation: "My grandparents emigrated from Poland to the U.S.A. i was born in London, and then lived in Canada. Unfortunately, I do not speak Polish, but I eagerly confess to my Polish roots")
  4. ^ Ray Wu, as remembered by a former student
  5. ^ http://exploringorigins.org/ Exploringorigins.org
  6. ^ "Blackburn, Greider, and Szostak share Nobel".  

See also

References

  • "About Jack W. Szostak". The Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Retrieved 2007-11-02. 
  • "Jack W. Szostak at Harvard University". Harvard University. Retrieved 2007-11-02. 
  • "Curriculum Vitae of Jack W. Szostak". Massachusetts General Hospital. Retrieved 2007-11-02. 

External links

  • Nobel Prize information
  • Szostak Lab website
  • DNA Ends: Just the Beginning Nobel Prize Lecture
  • Jack Szostak's lecture: "The Origin of Life on Earth"
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