World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Intelsat I

Article Id: WHEBN0002689171
Reproduction Date:

Title: Intelsat I  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Intelsat II, Delta D, List of Intelsat satellites, Hughes Aircraft, Marisat
Collection: Derelict Satellites Orbiting Earth, Hughes Aircraft, Intelsat Satellites, Spacecraft Launched in 1965
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Intelsat I

Intelsat I F1
INTELSAT I Early Bird.
Mission type Communications
Operator Communications Satellite Corporation / Intelsat
COSPAR ID 1965-028A
SATCAT № 1317
Mission duration 3 years and 5 months
Spacecraft properties
Bus HS301
Manufacturer Hughes Aircraft
Launch mass 149.0 kilograms (328.5 lb)
Power 40.0 watts
Start of mission
Launch date April 6, 1965, 23:47:50 (1965-04-06T23:47:50Z) UTC
Rocket Delta D
Launch site Cape Canaveral LC-17A
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime GSO
Semi-major axis 7,832.2 kilometers (4,866.7 mi)
Eccentricity 0.0011480
Perigee 35,767.8 kilometres (22,225.1 mi)
Apogee 35,855.1 kilometres (22,279.3 mi)
Inclination 3.1270°
Period 1.437 minutes
RAAN 294.7634 degrees
Argument of perigee 168.3421 degrees
Mean anomaly 191.2416 degrees
Mean motion 1.00198253
Revolution number 8068

Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird for the proverb "The early bird catches the worm") was the first commercial communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit, on April 6, 1965.[1][2] It was built by the Space and Communications Group of Hughes Aircraft Company (later Hughes Space and Communications Company, and now Boeing Satellite Systems) for COMSAT, which activated it on June 28. It was based on the satellite that Hughes had built for NASA to demonstrate that communications via synchronous-orbit satellite were feasible. Its booster was a Thrust Augmented Delta (Delta D). After a series of maneuvers, it reached its geosynchronous orbital position over the Atlantic Ocean at 28° west longitude, where it was put into service.[3]

It helped provide the first live TV coverage of a spacecraft splashdown, that of Gemini 6 in December 1965. Originally slated to operate for 18 months, Early Bird was in active service for four years, being deactivated in January 1969, although it was briefly activated in June of that year to serve the Apollo 11 flight when the Atlantic Intelsat satellite failed. It was deactivated again in August 1969 and has been inactive since that time (except for a brief reactivation in 1990 to commemorate its 25th launch anniversary), although it remains in orbit.

The Early Bird satellite was the first to provide direct and nearly instantaneous contact between Europe and North America, handling television, telephone, and telefacsimile transmissions. It was fairly small, measuring nearly 76 × 61 cm (2.5 × 2.0 feet) and weighing 34.5 kg (76 pounds).

Early Bird was one of the satellites used in the then record-breaking broadcast of Our World.


A full-scale model, or a flight test model, hangs in the main lobby of the Intelsat headquarters building, Washington, D.C.

See also


  1. ^ "Encyclopedia Astronautica - Intesat I". Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  2. ^ "Intelsat: History". Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  3. ^
  • "The Room-Size World (cover story)".  

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.