World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Industrial process

Article Id: WHEBN0024137331
Reproduction Date:

Title: Industrial process  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Compact disc, Technical drawing, SCADA, Renewable resource, Process engineering, Chemical plant, Russell Earl Marker, Korea General Machinery Trading Corporation, Trade policy of Japan, Process design
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Industrial process

Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacture of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale. Industrial processes are the key components of heavy industry.


General processes

These may be applied on their own, or as part of a larger process.

Chemical processes

Main article: Chemical process

Heat processes

  • Flash smelting - a refinement on smelting, for sulfur-containing ores (produces copper, nickel and lead)

Electrolysis

Main article: Electrolysis

The availability of electricity and its effect on materials gave rise to several processes for plating or separating metals.

Physical processes

There are several physical processes for reshaping a material by cutting, folding, joining or polishing, developed on a large scale from workshop techniques.

  • Forging - the shaping of metal by use of heat and hammer
  • Casting - shaping of a liquid material by pouring it into moulds and letting it solidify
  • Machining - the mechanical cutting and shaping of metal which involves the loss of the material.
  • Progressive stamping - the production of components from a strip or roll
  • Hydroforming - a tube of metal is expanded into a mould under pressure
  • Sandblasting - cleaning of a surface using sand or other particles
  • Soldering, Brazing, Welding - a process for joining metals
  • Tumble polishing - for polishing
  • Precipitation hardening - heat treatment used to strengthen malleable materials
  • Work hardening - adding strength to metals, alloys, etc.
  • Case hardening, Differential hardening, Shot peening - creating a wear resistant surface
  • Die cutting - A "forme" or "die" is pressed onto a flat material in order to cut, score, punch and otherwise shape the material

Moulding

The physical shaping of materials by forming their liquid form using a mould.

Separation

Many materials exist in an impure form, purification, or separation provides a usable product.

Distillation

Iron and steel

Early production of iron was from meteorites, or as a by-product of copper refining. Heating iron ore and carbon in a crucible at 1000 K produces wrought iron. This process gained popularity during the Iron Age. Temperatures of 1300 K were produced around the 8th century by blowing air through the heated mixture in a bloomery or blast furnace (12th century); producing a strong but brittle cast iron. Furnaces were growing bigger, producing greater quantities; a factor contributing to the Industrial Revolution. In 1740 the temperature and carbon content could be controlled sufficiently to consistently produce steel; very strong and very workable. The 19th century saw the development of electric arc furnaces that produced steel in very large quantities, and are more easily controlled.

Petroleum and organic compounds

The nature of an organic molecule means it can be transformed at the molecular level to create a range of products.

Others

Organized by product:

A list by process:

See also

industrial processes

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.