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Imphal

Imphal City
ইম্ফল
Capital city of Manipur
Imphal City is located in Manipur
Imphal City
Imphal City
Location of Imphal in Manipur
Coordinates:
Country India
State Manipur
District Imphal West, Imphal East
Elevation 786 m (2,579 ft)
Population (2011 census)
 • Total 264,986 (City), 414,288 (Metropolitan area)[1]
Languages
 • Official Meiteilon (Manipuri)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 795xxx
Telephone code 3852
Vehicle registration MN01
Website .in.nic.imphalwestwww

The city of Imphal (,  Imphal.ogg  ) is the capital of the Indian state of Manipur. The ruins of the Palace of Kangla, the royal seat of the erstwhile Kingdom of Manipur, are in the city centre, surrounded by a moat.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Early history 1.1
    • British rule 1.2
  • Geography and climate 2
  • Landmarks of Imphal 3
    • Kangla 3.1
    • Hiyangthang Lairembi Temple Complex 3.2
    • Jama Masjid 3.3
    • Shree Govindajee Temple 3.4
    • Imphal War Cemetery 3.5
    • Women's Market (Ima Keithel) 3.6
    • ISKCON Temple 3.7
  • Transport 4
    • Road 4.1
    • Air 4.2
    • Rail 4.3
  • Demographics 5
  • Education 6
    • Universities 6.1
    • Technical colleges 6.2
    • Medical colleges 6.3
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

History

Early history

Originally ruled by King Khaba, the throne of Imphal was later ceded by the Pakhangba leaders. It was here that the Ningthouja dynasty originated. The Ningthouja people expanded their influence in politics and warfare. The Kangla Palace, built by King Khagemba and his son Khunjaoba, was destroyed by the British during the Anglo-Manipuri War. During the reign of Maharaja Bhagyachandra, the region experienced several Burmese invasions; however, with the help of Gambhir Singh and the Manipur army, Kangla was liberated from the Burmese forces.

British rule

The region remained peaceful until British officials arrived in 1891. Taking advantage of internal differences among the royal family, the British sent J. W. Quinton to negotiate. The situation worsened; Senapati Tikendrajit was banished from the capital, which led to the first Anglo-Manipur war. Britain's undeclared rule over Manipur angered the local population. In 1892, the second Anglo-Manipur war broke out between the British and forces led by the Manipuri commander-in-chief. The British attacked the palace, and gunned down the walls of Kangal Fort. After its capture, Manipur remained a part of British India until independence in 1947. Imphal was the scene of the Battle of Imphal.

Geography and climate

Imphal
Climate chart ()
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
12
 
 
22
4
 
 
31
 
 
23
7
 
 
92
 
 
27
12
 
 
133
 
 
28
16
 
 
159
 
 
29
18
 
 
225
 
 
29
21
 
 
223
 
 
29
22
 
 
195
 
 
29
21
 
 
147
 
 
29
20
 
 
112
 
 
28
17
 
 
46
 
 
25
11
 
 
15
 
 
22
5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: IMD[2]

Imphal is located at in extreme eastern India,[3] with an average elevation of 786 metres (2,579 ft). It has a [4] with mild, dry winters and a hot monsoon season. July temperatures average about 29 °C (84 °F); January is the coldest month, with average lows near 4 °C (39 °F). The city receives about 1,320 mm (52 in) of rain, with June the wettest month. The highest recorded temperature was 35.6 °C (96.1 °F), most recently in 22 May 2009, and the lowest average temperature was −2.7 °C (27.1 °F) in 10 January 1970.[2][5]

Climate data for Imphal
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.8
(82)
31.5
(88.7)
35.0
(95)
34.4
(93.9)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
35.7
(96.3)
34.0
(93.2)
34.4
(93.9)
33.5
(92.3)
30.7
(87.3)
28.9
(84)
35.7
(96.3)
Average high °C (°F) 21.7
(71.1)
23.4
(74.1)
26.9
(80.4)
28.4
(83.1)
28.9
(84)
29.4
(84.9)
29.0
(84.2)
29.2
(84.6)
29.0
(84.2)
28.4
(83.1)
25.4
(77.7)
22.4
(72.3)
26.9
(80.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.5
(58.1)
16.3
(61.3)
20.0
(68)
22.7
(72.9)
24.1
(75.4)
24.6
(76.3)
24.5
(76.1)
24.6
(76.3)
24.4
(75.9)
22.8
(73)
19.0
(66.2)
15.6
(60.1)
21.1
(70)
Average low °C (°F) 4.3
(39.7)
7.2
(45)
11.6
(52.9)
15.7
(60.3)
18.4
(65.1)
21.2
(70.2)
21.5
(70.7)
21.3
(70.3)
20.1
(68.2)
16.6
(61.9)
11.0
(51.8)
5.3
(41.5)
14.6
(58.3)
Record low °C (°F) −2.7
(27.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
2.4
(36.3)
6.2
(43.2)
11.1
(52)
14.7
(58.5)
15.4
(59.7)
14.6
(58.3)
14.3
(57.7)
7.8
(46)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.7
(28.9)
−2.7
(27.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 11.7
(0.461)
30.8
(1.213)
91.6
(3.606)
132.7
(5.224)
158.6
(6.244)
224.9
(8.854)
222.8
(8.772)
194.8
(7.669)
147.3
(5.799)
111.5
(4.39)
46.0
(1.811)
15.1
(0.594)
1,387.7
(54.634)
Average precipitation days 1.2 3.3 6.6 9.8 11.5 15.3 15.7 13.0 9.9 6.8 3.1 1.0 97.2
Source #1: IMD (period: 1971–2000, record low and high up to 2010)[2][5]
Source #2: Climate-Data.org for mean temperatures (altitude: 779m)[4]

Landmarks of Imphal

Kangla

Kangla Fort is on the banks of the Imphal River, and is also known as the Palace of Kangla. Kangla means "dry land" in the Meitei language. The fort was the palace of King Pakhangba, and also has religious significance. In the fort are a number of temples, and it is surrounded on three sides by a lake.

Hiyangthang Lairembi Temple Complex

A religious site and a tourist attraction, the temple complex is noted for its annual Durga Puja festival in September or October.

Jama Masjid

A holy place for Muslims in Imphal, it is the only mosque in the Imphal market (on the bank of the Nambul River).

Shree Govindajee Temple

The temple was considered the apex of cultural activity during the reign of the Maharajas. Near the palace, it has two domes and a raised congregation hall.

Imphal War Cemetery

Cemetery with trees and monuments at ground level
Imphal War Cemetery

This cemetery remembers British and Indian soldiers who fought and died in the Second World War (1944).

Women's Market (Ima Keithel)

The market stalls are all run by women, and it is reportedly the only such market in the world.[6]

Market, seen from above, with colourful textiles
Women's Market (Ima Keithel)

ISKCON Temple

The ISKCON Temple is near the road from Imphal Airport to the city.

Transport

Road

Imphal is connected by road to Silchar via National Highway 37, to Aizwal via National Highway 150 and to Dimapur and Tumu in Myanmar via National Highway AH-1. Other main roads in Imphal are the Uripok-Kangchup road, the RIMS road, the Nagamapal-Thangmeiband road, the Mayai-lambi road, Palace Compound road, Dingku Road and the JNIMS Hospital road. Private taxis and city buses are in regular service as urban transport.

Large sign in front of a building
ISBT Imphal

Air

Dark highway, with oncoming headlights
National Highway 150 in Imphal

Green buildings with pyramid-shaped roofs
Imphal Airport

Street, with older buildings on each side
Pouna Bazar Market, Imphal

Imphal International Airport is 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the city.[7] It is the second-largest international airport in northeast India, with postal air-cargo service six days a week. A new terminal building with cold-storage facilities is planned.[8] Air India, IndiGo, Jet Airways, Air India Regional, JetKonnect and North East Shuttle offer service to major cities such as Delhi, Kolkata and Guwahati and regional airports such as Agartala, Silcher, Aizawl and Jorhat. Connections with Rangoon and Mandalay, Myanmar and Bangkok, Thailand are planned.

Rail

In October 2012, India's Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure approved an extension of the Jiribam-Silchar railway to Imphal. The extension is expected to reach the city by March 2016.[9]

Demographics

According to the 2011 Indian census, Imphal's population was 264,986 (128,931 men and 136,055 women). The population of the metropolitan area was 414,288 (201,635 men and 212,653 women). The number of literate people in the city was 219,261 (110,809 men and 108,452 women). Imphal's literacy rate averaged 91.70 percent (95.87 for men and 87.80 for women). The city's sex ratio was 1,055 women for every 1,000 men. The sex ratio for children was 939 girls to 1,000 boys. There was a total of 25,877 children from birth to age six in Imphal (13,347 boys and 12,530 girls), 9.77 percent of the city's total population.

The Imphal metropolitan area is made up of Bijoy Govinda, Chingangbam Leikai, Imphal, Khongman, Khurai Sajor Leikai, Kiyamgei, Kongkham Leikai (portion), Laipham Siphai, Lairikyengbam Leikai, Lamjaotongba, Lamshang (core town), Langjing, Langthabal Kunja, Langthabal Mantrikhong (portion), Lilong (Imphal West) (core town), Lilong (Thoubal), Naorem Leikai, Naoria Pakhanglakpa, Oinam Thingel, Porompat, Porompat Plan Area, Sagolband (portion), Takyel Mapal, Thongju and Torban (Kshetri Leikai).[10]

Education

Universities

Yellow-and-green buildings forming a narrow archway
Manipur University main gate

Technical colleges

Medical colleges

Rectangular pink building with glass front
City Convention Centre

See also

References

  1. ^ Census2,011.co.in. 2,011. Retrieved 2,011-09-30.
  2. ^ a b c
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ http://www.ibef.org/download/Manipur_271211.pdf
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^

External links

  • Imphal travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Imphal West
  • Imphal East
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