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Hassan II of Morocco

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Hassan II of Morocco

Hassan II
King of Morocco
Reign 26 February 1961 – 24 July 1999
Predecessor Mohammed V
Successor Mohammed VI
Born (1929-07-09)9 July 1929
Rabat, Morocco
Died 23 July 1999(1999-07-23) (aged 70)
Rabat, Morocco
Burial Royal Mausoleum,
Rabat, Morocco
Spouse Princess Lalla Fatima bint Qaid Amhourok
Princess Lalla Latifa
Issue
Dynasty Alaouite
Father Mohammed V
Mother Lalla Abla bint Tahar
Religion Sunni Islam

King Hassan II (Arabic: الحسن الثاني‎, MSA: (a)l-ḥasan aṯ-ṯānī, Darija: el-ḥasan ett(s)âni); 9 July 1929 – 23 July 1999) was King of Morocco from 1961 until his death in 1999. He is the eldest son of Mohammed V, Sultan, then King of Morocco (1909–1961), and his second wife, Lalla Abla bint Tahar (1909–1992).[1]

Contents

  • Biography 1
    • Youth and education 1.1
    • Rule 1.2
    • Death 1.3
  • Family 2
  • See also 3
  • References and links 4
  • External links 5

Biography

Youth and education

King Hassan was educated at the Imperial College at Rabat, and earned a law degree from the University of Bordeaux.

He was exiled to Corsica by French authorities on 20 August 1953, together with his father Sultan Mohammed V. They were transferred to Madagascar in January 1954. Prince Moulay Hassan acted as his father's political advisor during the exile. Mohammed V and his family returned from exile on 16 November 1955.

Prince Moulay Hassan participated in the February 1956 negotiations for Morocco's independence with his father, who later appointed him Chief of Staff of the newly founded Royal Armed Forces in April 1956. In the unrest of the same year, he led army contingents battling rebels in the mountains of the Rif. Mohammed V changed the title of the Moroccan sovereign from Sultan to King in 1957. Hassan was proclaimed Crown Prince on 19 July 1957, and became King on 26 February 1961, after his father's death.

Rule

Hassan II

Hassan's conservative rule, one characterized by a poor human rights record,[2] strengthened the Alaouite dynasty. In Morocco's first constitution of 1963, Hassan II reaffirmed Morocco's choice of a multi-party political system, the only one in the Maghreb at that time. The constitution gave the King large powers he eventually used to strengthen his rule, which provoked strong political protest from the UNFP and the Istiqlal parties that formed the backbone of the opposition. In 1965, Hassan dissolved Parliament and ruled directly, although he did not abolish the mechanisms of parliamentary democracy. When elections were eventually held, they were mostly rigged in favor of loyal parties. This caused severe discontent among the opposition, and protest demonstrations and riots challenged the King's rule. A US report observed that "Hassan appears obsessed with the preservation of his power rather than with its application toward the resolution of Morocco's multiplying domestic problems."[3]

In the early 1970s, King Hassan survived two Mohamed Medbouh and Colonel M'hamed Ababou and carried out by cadets during a diplomatic function at the King's summer palace in Rabat during his forty-second birthday party. Important guests, including the Belgian Ambassador Marcel Dupert, were placed under house arrest, and the King himself was taken to a small pavilion. Rabat's main radio station was taken over by the rebels and broadcast propaganda stating that the King had been murdered and a republic founded. The coup ended the same day when royalist troops took over the palace in combat against the rebels. It was subsequently claimed by the Moroccan authorities that that the young cadets had been mislead by senior officers into thinking that they were acting to protect the king.

On 16 August 1972, during a second attempt, four F-5 military jets from the Royal Moroccan Air Force fired upon the King's Boeing 727 while he was traveling back to Rabat from France, many bullets hit the fuselage but they failed to bring the plane down. Eight people were killed when the jets strafed the awaiting reception dignitaries.[4] General Mohamed Oufkir, Morocco's defense minister, was the man behind the coup and was officially declared to have committed suicide after the attack. His body, however, was found with several bullet wounds.[5]

In the

Hassan II of Morocco
Born: 9 July 1929 Died: 23 July 1999
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mohammed V
King of Morocco
1961–1999
Succeeded by
Mohammed VI
  • History of Morocco
  • Boeing 727 Program Breakthroughs

External links

  1. ^ Royal Ark
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Jets attack Moroccan King's plane", The Guardian, 17 August 1972
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Highbeam
  10. ^ Map.ma

References and links

See also

The father of Hassan II was Mohammed V of Morocco and his mother was Lalla Abla bint Tahar. He had five sisters and one brother:

The king had one other wife, Lalla Fatima bint Qaid Ould Hassan Amhourak (cousin of Latifa Hammou), whom he also married in 1961. They had no children.

King Hassan II had five children with his wife Lalla Latifa Hammou, a member of the Zayane tribe, whom he married in 1961:

Family

Hassan died of natural causes; he was in his birth town at the age of 70 on 23 July 1999. A national funeral service was held for him in at Rabat, Morocco, with over 40 heads of state in attendance. He was buried in the Mausoleum of Mohammed V in Rabat. The coffin of King Hassan II, carried by King Mohamed VI, his brother Prince Moulay Rachid and his cousin Moulay Hicham, was covered with a green fabric, in which the first prayer of Islam, "There is no god but Allah", is inscribed in golden letters.[9]

Death

King Hassan II had extended many parliamentary functions by the early 1990s and released hundreds of political prisoners in 1991, and allowed the Alternance, where the opposition assumed power, for the first time in the Arab World. He set up a Royal Council for Human Rights to look into allegations of abuse by the State.

The period from the 1960s to the late 1980s was labelled as the "years of lead"[7][8] and saw thousands of dissidents jailed, killed, exiled or forcibly disappeared.

Economically, Hassan II adopted a market-based economy, where agriculture, tourism, and phosphates mining industries played a major role.

During his reign, Morocco recovered the Spanish-controlled area of Ifni in 1969, and militarily seized two thirds of Spanish Sahara through the "Green March" in 1975. The latter issue continues to dominate Moroccan foreign policy to this day. Relations with Algeria have deteriorated sharply due to the Western Sahara affair, as well as due to Moroccan claims on Algerian territory (Tindouf and Bechar), which unleashed the brief 1963 Sand War. Relations with Mauritania were tense too, as Morocco only recognized it as a sovereign country in 1969, nearly a decade after Mauritania's independence, because of Moroccan claims on the country (see Great Morocco).

community. Moroccan Jewish, facilitating early negotiations between them. This was made possible due to the presence in Israel of a large Israel Hassan served as a back channel between the Arab world and [6]

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