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Gettysburg Address

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Gettysburg Address

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  • ^ a b c Wills, Garry. Lincoln at Gettysburg. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, pp. 24–25, p. 35, pp. 34–35, p. 36.
  • ^ Goldman, A. S.; Schmalstieg Jr, F. C. (2007). "Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg illness". Journal of medical biography 15 (2): 104–10.  
  • ^ Boritt, Gabor. The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech That Nobody Knows. Simon & Schuster, 2008.
  • ^ Murphy, Jim (2000). Long Road to Gettysburg. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 5.  
  • ^ Reid, Ronald F. (1990). Edward Everett: Unionist Orator. Volume 7. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 192.  
  • ^ Alfred L. Brophy, "'These Great and Beautiful Republics of the Dead': Public Constitutionalism and the Antebellum Cemetery"
  • ^ Murphy, Jim. The Long Road to Gettysburg, New York: Clarion Books, 1992. p. 105, "with a pronounced Kentucky accent."
  • ^ a b Gopnik, Adam (May 28, 2007). "Angels and Ages: Lincoln's language and its legacy". Retrieved 2007-11-23.  Gopnik notes, "Gabor Boritt, in his book The Gettysburg Gospel, has a thirty-page appendix that compares what Lincoln (probably) read at the memorial with what people heard and reported. Most of the differences are small, and due to understandable confusions ... A few disputes seem more significant."
  • ^ Also note Johnson's reference that "In 1895 Congress had voted to place at Gettysburg a bronze tablet engraved with the address but had mandated a text that does not correspond to any in Lincoln's hand or to contemporary newspaper accounts. The statute is reprinted in Henry Sweetser Burrage, Gettysburg and Lincoln: The Battle, the Cemetery, and the National Park (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1906), 211."
  • ^ a b Boritt, Gabor. The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech That Nobody Knows., Appendix B p. 290: "This is the only copy that ... Lincoln dignified with a title: 'Address delivered at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg.', a rare full signature, and the date: 'November 19, 1863.' ..This final draft, generally considered the standard text, remained in the Bliss family until 1949."
  • ^ a b McPherson, James M (July 16, 1992). "The Art of Abraham Lincoln". The New York Review of Books 39 (13). Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2007-11-30. 
  • ^ "Yes We Can! The Lost Art Of Oratory".  
  • ^ "Pericles' Funeral Oration from Thucydides: Peloponnesian War". Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics. The Constitution Society. 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-30. 
  • ^ Shaw, Albert, ed. The American Monthly Review of Reviews. Vol. XXIII, January–June 1901. New York: The Review of Reviews Company, 1901. p. 336.
  • ^ Herndon, William H. and Jesse W. Welk. Abraham Lincoln: The True Story of A Great Life New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1892. Vol II., p 65.
  • ^ Smith, Craig (Fall 2000). "Criticism of Political Rhetoric and Disciplinary Integrity". American Communication Journal 4 (1). Archived from the original on 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  • ^ a b "The Second Reply to Hayne (January 26–27, 1830)". Daniel Webster: Dartmouth's Favorite Son. Dartmouth. Retrieved 2007-11-30.  Webster himself may have been relying on earlier use of similar language. For example, John Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton had employed similar phraseology in 1819: "I am a man chosen for the people, by the people; and, if elected, I will do no other business than that of the people." See Broughton, John and Burdett, Francis. An Authentic Narrative of the Events of the Westminster Election, which Commenced on Saturday, February 13th, and Closed on Wednesday, March 3d, 1819 page 105 (Published by R. Stodart, 1819).
  • ^ Vosmeier, Matthew Noah (January–February 1992). "Lincoln and the 'Central Idea of the Occasion': Garry Wills's Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words that Remade America.". Lincoln Lore (The Lincoln Museum). Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  • ^ Guelzo, Allen C (November 21, 2006). "When the Court lost its Conscience". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2009-02-14. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  • ^ McInerney, Daniel J (September 2000). "Review of Allen C. Guelzo, Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President". H-Pol, H-Net Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-30. 
  • ^ Guelzo, Allen C (1999). Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing.  
  • ^ Hannan, Dan. "150 years ago today, Abraham Lincoln praised 'government of the people, by the people, for the people' – but the words were not his". Retrieved 2013-11-19. 
  • ^ a b c d e f Johnson, Martin P (Summer 2003). "Who Stole the Gettysburg Address". Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 24 (2): 1–19. 
  • ^ Rao, Maya (April 6, 2005). "C.U. Holds Gettysburg Address". Cornell Daily Sun. Retrieved 2007-11-23. : "Several months after President Abraham Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg address, renowned historian George Bancroft attended a reception at the White House. There, he asked Lincoln for a hand-written copy of the address, and that manuscript is now the highlight of Cornell University Library's Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections." "[Visitors] ... can also see the letter Lincoln enclosed when he mailed the copy to Bancroft, which is dated February 29, 1864."
  • ^ White, Ronald C. Jr. The Eloquent President: A Portrait of Lincoln Through His Words. New York: Random House, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-6119-9 Appendix 9, p. 390: "The Bliss copy ... Lincoln made in March 1864 ... The Everett and Bancroft copies, both of which Lincoln made in February 1864."
  • ^ a b Boritt, Gabor (November 16, 2006). "In Lincoln's Hand". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2009-02-13. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  • ^ "Preservation of the drafts of the Gettysburg Address at the Library of Congress". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  • ^ a b Nicolay, J. "Lincoln's Gettysburg Address", Century Magazine 47 (February 1894): 596–608, cited by Johnson, Martin P. "Who Stole the Gettysburg Address", Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 24(2) (Summer 2003): 1–19.
  • ^ a b c "The Gettysburg Address Nicolay draft". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  • ^ Sandburg, Carl. "Lincoln Speaks at Gettysburg." In: Abraham Lincoln: The War Years (1939) New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company. II, 452–57; cited by Prochnow, Victor Herbert. ed. Great Stories from Great Lives Freeport: Books for Libraries Press, 1944. ISBN 0-8369-2018-X, p. 13: "The Cincinnati Commercial reporter wrote 'The President rises slowly, draws from his pocket a paper ... [and] reads the brief and pithy remarks."
  • ^ Wills, Garry. Appendix I: "this text does not have three important phrases that the joint newspaper accounts prove he actually spoke," and "there is no physical impossibility that this is the delivery text, but it is ... unlikely that it is."
  • ^ Top Treasures. American Treasures of the Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-12-10.
  • ^ David Mearns, "Unknown at this Address", in Lincoln and the Gettysburg Address: Commemorative Papers, ed. Allan Nevins (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1964), 133; Mearns and Dunlap, caption describing the facsimile of the Hay text in Long Remembered.; both cited in Johnson, "Who Stole the Gettysburg Address".
  • ^ a b c d "Gettysburg National Military Park". United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-12-03.  Historical Handbook Number Nine 1954 (Revised 1962), at the Gettysburg National Military Park Historical Handbook website.
  • ^ "The Gettysburg Address Hay draft".  
  • ^ Truescans of , 1864; Boston.Edward Everett's factual narrative on the Battle at Gettysburg, the procession to and consecration of its National Cemetery, and presentation of Abraham Lincoln's dedicatory Gettysburg Address
  • ^ "George Bancroft". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  • ^ See also: George Bancroft. Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  • ^ "Gettysburg Address". Cornell University Library. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  • ^ "Founding Collections: Nicholas H. Noyes '06 and Marguerite Lilly Noyes". Cornell University Library. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  • ^ "C.U. Holds Gettysburg Address Manuscript". The Cornell Daily Sun. April 6, 2005. Retrieved 2005-12-18. 
  • ^ "About Cintas: Oscar B. Cintas". Oscar B. Cintas foundation. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  • ^ Boritt, Gabor (November 16, 2006). "Change of Address: The Gettysburg drafts". The Wall Street Journal. p. D6. Retrieved 2006-12-04. 
  • ^ Wills, Appendix I.
  • ^ "The Gettysburg Address". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 4 April 2012. 
  • ^ Bryan, William Jennings, ed. 1906. The World's Famous Orations Vol. IX. America: II. (1818–1865). "V. The Speech at Gettysburg by Abraham Lincoln.". Retrieved 2005-12-18. 
  • ^ "1846–1900: The News Cooperative Takes Shape". History/Archives: The Associated Press. Associated Press.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-29. Retrieved 2007-11-30. 
  • ^ a b "The Heroes of July; A Solemn and Imposing Event. Dedication of the National Cemetery at Gettysburgh". The New York Times. November 20, 1863. p. 1. Archived from the original on January 19, 2008. Retrieved 2007-11-23.  Full article in PDF available here [1].
  • ^ Hark, Ann. "Mrs. John T. Myers Relives the Day She Met the Great Emancipator". Recollections of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg. Abraham Lincoln online. Retrieved 2007-11-30.  Citing the Philadelphia Public Ledger of February 7, 1932.
  • ^  
  • ^ "Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg Cemetery". Lincoln at Gettysburg Photo Tour. Abraham Lincoln Online. 2007. Retrieved 2005-12-18. 
  • ^ "Gettysburg Address Information". Dobbin House Inc. 1996–2006. Retrieved 2007-11-30.  at gettysburg.com.
  • ^ a b Simon, et al., eds. The Lincoln Forum: Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg, and the Civil War. Mason City: Savas Publishing Company, 1999. ISBN 1-882810-37-6, p. 41.
  • ^ , Harcourt, Brace & World, 1954, p. 445.Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years and the War YearsSandburg, Carl
  • ^ Prochow, Herbert Victor, Great Stories from Great Lives. Harper & Brothers, 1944, p. 17.
  • ^ Patriot-News Editorial Board (14 November 2013). "Retraction for our 1863 editorial calling Gettysburg Address 'silly remarks': Editorial". Patriot-News. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  • ^ Stewart, Doug (18 November 2013). "My Great-Great-Grandfather Hated the Gettysburg Address. 150 Years Later, He's Famous For It.". The Smithsonian's Past Imperfect. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  • ^ "The Civil War In America". London: The Times. 4 December 1863. p. 9. Retrieved 3 June 2014. (subscription required (help)). 
  • ^ United National Association of Post Office Clerks, The Post Office Clerk magazine, Volumes 13–14, January, 1914, page 6
  • ^ United States House of Representatives, Memorial Addresses on Joseph A. Goulden, 1917, page 97
  • ^ "Gettysburg Eyewitness - Lost and Found Sound: The Boy Who Heard Lincoln". NPR. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  • ^ "21 Minute audio recording of William R. Rathvon's audio recollections of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address recorded in 1938". NPR. Retrieved 2009-09-07.  and "6 min. version. SMIL file format.". NPR. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  • ^ "Lost and Found Sound: An American Record Transcript", National Endowment for the Humanities.
  • ^ "The Only Known Photograph of President Lincoln at the dedication of the Civil War cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  • ^ "Bachrach in the news". Bachrach photography. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  • ^ Walker, Cliff (ed.) (September 2002). "Lincoln's Gettysburg 'Under God': Another case of 'retrofitting'? (reply)". Positive Atheism. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  • ^  : "The Gettysburg address ... is often given as the source of the addition to the Pledge of Allegiance that we often hear, that phrase, 'under God.' Wrong."
  • ^ Barton, pp. 138–139.
  • ^ Prochnow, p. 14.
  • ^ Prochnow, p. 13.
  • ^ a b Prochnow, p. 15.
  • ^ Sandburg, Carl. "Lincoln Speaks at Gettysburg". In: Abraham Lincoln: The War Years (1939) New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company. II, 452–457; cited by Prochnow, p. 14.
  • ^ Barton, p. 81.
  • ^ Geoff Nunberg (June 20, 2004). (Next) Under God,' Phrasal Idiom"'". Language Log. Retrieved November 24, 2013. 
  • ^ Einhorn, Lois (1992). Abraham Lincoln, the orator: penetrating the Lincoln legend. Greenwood Press. p. 92.  
  • ^ Historical Marker Database. "Gettysburg Address Marker". Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  • ^ Historical Marker Database. "Lincoln Speech Memorial Marker". Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  • ^ Lincoln Financial Foundation Collection. "Lincoln at Gettysburg; Told by Eye Witness". Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  • ^ Lincoln National Life Insurance Company (November 25, 1969). "Dispute Over Exact Location Where Lincoln's Speech Was Made of Great Interest To Many Gettysburg Visitors". Gettysburg Times. pp. 7–9. 
  • ^ Pergus Project. "Gettysburg Address". Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  • ^ Tilberg, Frederick. "The Location of the Platform From Which Lincoln Delivered the Gettysburg Address". Pennsylvania History, Vol XL, No. 2. The Pennsylvania Historical Association. pp. 179–191. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  • ^ Historical Marker Database. "Kentucky Memorial Marker". Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  • ^ Tilberg, Frederick. "The Location of the Platform From Which Lincoln Delivered the Gettysburg Address". Pennsylvania History, Vol XL, No. 2. The Pennsylvania Historical Association. p. 187. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  • ^ Historical Marker Database. "The Gettysburg Address Marker". Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  • ^ "Soldiers' National Monument". (structure ID MN288, LCS ID 009949)  
  • ^ National Park Service. "FCIC: Gettysburg National Military Park". Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  • ^ Stone Sentinels. "Soldiers' National Monument". Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  • ^ Waymarking. "Soldiers' National Monument". Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  • ^ Flickr/Jericho_54. "Gettysburg: Soldiers' National Monument". Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  • ^ Historical Marker Database. "The Gettysburg Address". Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  • ^ Waymarking.com. "The Gettysburg Address — Gettysburg, PA — Abraham Lincoln". Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  • ^ Wills, Garry (1992). Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 209–210.  
  • ^ The Washington Times. "'"Disproving Many Historical 'Facts. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  • ^ Frassanito, William A. (1995). Early Photography at Gettysburg. Gettysburg, PA: Thomas Publications. pp. 160–167.  
  • ^ University of North Carolina at Asheville. "Finding the Real Lincoln". Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  • ^ National Park Service. "National Cemetery Walking Tour". Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  • ^ Frassanito, William A. (1995). Early Photography at Gettysburg. Gettysburg, PA: Thomas Publications. p. 167.  
  • ^ Pfanz, Harry W (1993). Gettysburg: Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. p. 375.  
  • ^ Gettysburg Discussion Group. "Afterwards and Afterthoughts". Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  • ^ "Outline of U.S. History".  
  • ^ Dry, M. (1996). "Review of National Standards for Civics and Government". PS: Political Science and Politics 29 (1): 49–53.  
  • ^ Garrow, David J. (August 2003). "Martin Luther King Jr: the March, the Man, the Dream.". American History. Retrieved 2009-11-09. [F]our days before the  
  • ^ "Constitution du 4 octobre 1958". Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  • ^ Sharman, Lyon (1968). Sun Yat-sen: His life and its meaning, a critical biography. Stanford University Press. p. 271. 
  • ^ "USS Abraham Lincoln". United States Navy. Carrier Strike Group NINE. Retrieved October 14, 2011. Aircraft carrier Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) adopted Lincoln's phrase "Shall not perish" as her motto. 
  • ^ "Abraham Lincoln".  
  • ^ "Message from the President on the Occasion of Field Mass at Gettysburg, June 29, 1963, delivered by John S. Gleason, Jr." Box 10, President's Outgoing Executive Correspondence, White House Central Chronological Files, Papers of John F. Kennedy, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library.
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