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Ecma International

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Title: Ecma International  
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Subject: ISO/IEC 646, Open XML Paper Specification, ECMAScript, Universal 3D, Universal Disk Format
Collection: Organisations Based in Geneva, Organizations Established in 1961, Standards Organizations
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Ecma International

Ecma International
Abbreviation Ecma
Formation 1961
Type Standards organization
Purpose Standardization of Information and Communication Technology and Consumer Electronics
Headquarters Geneva
Region served
Official language
President / Secretary General
Ms. Josée Auber / Dr. István Sebestyén
Key people
Mr. K. Yamashita, Mr. D. Mc. Allister, Ms. I. Valet-Harper
Main organ
General Assembly
by membership dues

Ecma International is an international private (membership-based) non-profit acronym and no longer uses full capitalization.

The organization was originally founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. Membership is open to large and small companies worldwide that produce, market or develop computer or communication systems, and have interest and experience in the areas addressed by the group's technical bodies. It is located in Geneva.


  • Aims 1
  • Standards 2
    • Java programming language 2.1
    • Office Open XML formats 2.2
  • Eco Declaration 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


Ecma aims to develop standards and technical reports to facilitate and standardize the use of information communication technology and consumer electronics; encourage the correct use of standards by influencing the environment in which they are applied; and publish these standards and reports in electronic and printed form. Ecma publications, including standards, can be freely copied by all interested parties without copyright restrictions. The development of standards and technical reports is done in co-operation with the appropriate national, European and international organisations.

Unlike national standardization bodies, Ecma is a membership-based organization. It takes pride in the resulting "business-like" approach to standards, claimed to lead to better standards in less time, thanks to a less bureaucratic process focused on achieving results by consensus.

For over 50 years Ecma has actively contributed to worldwide standardization in information technology and telecommunications. More than 400 Ecma Standards[2] and 100 Technical Reports[3] have been published, more than 2/3 of which have also been adopted as international standards and/or technical reports.

The memberlist of Ecma International is available on its website.[4]


Ecma International is currently responsible for several standards, including the following:

  • ECMA-6 – 7-bit Coded Character Set (based on ASCII), also approved as ISO/IEC 646[5]
  • ECMA-35 – Character Code Structure and Extension Techniques, also approved as ISO/IEC 2022[6]
  • ECMA-48 – Control Functions for Coded Character Sets, also approved as ISO/IEC 6429[7]
  • ECMA-119 – CD-ROM volume and filestructure (later known as ISO 9660)[8]
  • ECMA-130 – CD-ROM "Yellow Book" format
  • ECMA-262 – ECMAScript Language Specification (often referred to as JavaScript)[9]
  • ECMA-334 – C# Language Specification[10]
  • ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)[11]
  • ECMA-341 – Environmental design considerations for electronic products[12]
  • ECMA-363 – Universal 3D File Format[13]
  • ECMA-367 – Eiffel: Analysis, design and programming Language (See Eiffel programming language)[14]
  • ECMA-372 – C++/CLI Language Specification[15]
  • ECMA-376 – Office Open XML (later known as ISO/IEC 29500)
  • ECMA-377 – Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) Recordable Cartridges[16]
  • ECMA-378 – Read-Only Memory Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD-ROM)[17]
  • ECMA-388 – Open XML Paper Specification[18]
  • ECMA-402 – ECMAScript Internationalization API Specification[19]
  • ECMA-404 – JSON[20]
  • ECMA-408 – Dart language specification[21]

Java programming language

Although Sun Microsystems submitted its Java programming language to Ecma, Sun subsequently withdrew the submission. Thus, Ecma is not responsible for the standardization of Java.[22]

Office Open XML formats

Ecma is involved in the standardization of the Ecma Office Open XML format based on the XML office document formats by Microsoft. The Ecma Office Open XML maintenance process is currently performed by technical committee 45 ( TC45).[23]

Eco Declaration

In Ecma International Standard 370,[24] Ecma joined forces with the Scandinavian IT Eco Declaration organisation to put forward a guideline for informing consumers about the environmental practices of the manufacturers of ICT and consumer electronics products.

The IT Eco Declaration includes information on the environmental practices of the manufacturer as well as product features, such as environmentally conscious design, batteries, acoustic noise, electrical safety, energy consumption, chemical emissions, substances and materials included, and packaging. This makes it easy to compare different suppliers and their products, as they all present the environmental features of their products in the same way, through a common industry standard reporting form.

See also


  1. ^ "Ecma By-laws". 
  2. ^ "Ecma Standards - list". 
  3. ^ "Ecma Technical Reports". 
  4. ^ "Ecma Members". 
  5. ^ "Standard ECMA-6, 7-bit Coded Character Set". December 1991. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  6. ^ "Standard ECMA-35, Character Code Structure and Extension Techniques". December 1994. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  7. ^ "Standard ECMA-48, Control Functions for Coded Character Sets". June 1991. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  8. ^ "Volume and File Structure of CDROM for Information Interchange". Ecma International. December 1987. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  9. ^ "Standard ECMA-262, ECMAScript Language Specification". Ecma International. Retrieved December 1999. 
  10. ^ "Standard ECMA-334, C# Language Specification". Ecma International. Retrieved June 2005. 
  11. ^ "Standard ECMA-335, Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)". Ecma International. Retrieved August 31, 2005. 
  12. ^ "Standard ECMA-341, Environmental design considerations for electronic products". Ecma International. Retrieved December 2004. 
  13. ^ "Standard ECMA-363, Universal 3D File Format". Ecma International. Retrieved August 2005. 
  14. ^ "Standard ECMA-367, Eiffel analysis, design and programming Language". Ecma International. Retrieved June 2005. 
  15. ^ "Standard ECMA-372". 
  16. ^ "Standard ECMA-377". 
  17. ^ "Standard ECMA-378". 
  18. ^ "Standard ECMA-388". 
  19. ^ "Standard ECMA-402". 
  20. ^ "Standard ECMA-404". 
  21. ^
  22. ^ "Sun to retain grip on Java". Infoworld Electric. December 8, 1999. 
  23. ^ "TC45 - Office Open XML Formats". 
  24. ^ "Standard ECMA-370". 

External links

  • Official website
  • Index of Ecma Standards
  • C# Language Specification (hyperlinked)
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