World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Dogrib language

Article Id: WHEBN0000593648
Reproduction Date:

Title: Dogrib language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Northwest Territories, Sarcee language, Chipewyan language, Chilcotin language, Athabaskan languages
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Dogrib language

Dogrib
Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì
Native to Canada
Region Northwest Territories
Ethnicity Dogrib people
Native speakers
2,100  (2011 census)[1]
Official status
Official language in
 Northwest Territories (Canada)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-2 dgr
ISO 639-3 dgr
Glottolog dogr1252[3]
Tlicho communities in the Northwest Territories

The Tłı̨chǫ language (Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì, IPA: ), is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken by the First Nations Tłı̨chǫ people of the Canadian territory Northwest Territories. According to Statistics Canada in 2006, there were approximately 2,640 people who spoke Tłı̨chǫ.[4] Tłı̨chǫ is also known as Dogrib.

The Tłı̨chǫ region covers the northern shore of Great Slave Lake, reaching almost up to Great Bear Lake. Rae-Edzo, now known by its Tłı̨chǫ name, Behchokǫ̀, is the largest community in the Tłı̨chǫ region.

Phonology

Consonants

The consonants of Tłı̨chǫ in the standard orthography are listed below (with IPA notation in brackets):[5]

  Bilabial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
central lateral plain labialized
Nasal plain  m  /m/  n  /n/            
prenasalized  mb  /ᵐb/  nd  /ⁿd/            
Plosive voiced  b  /b/  d  /d/        g  /ɡ/  gw  /ɡʷ/  
voiceless    t  /t/        k  /k/  kw  /kʷ/    /ʔ/
ejective    t’  /tʼ/        k’  /kʼ/  kw’  /kʷʼ/  
Affricate voiced    dz  /dz/  dl  /dɮ/  j  /dʒ/        
voiceless    ts  /ts/  tl  /tɬ/  ch  /tʃ/        
ejective    ts’  /tsʼ/  tl’  /tɬʼ/  ch’  /tʃʼ/        
Fricative voiced    z  /z/    zh  /ʒ/    gh  /ɣ/    
voiceless    s  /s/  ł  /ɬ/  sh  /ʃ/    x  /x/    h  /h/
Approximant voiced    r  /ɹ/  l  /l/    y  /j/    w  /w/  
voiceless              wh  /ʍ/  

Vowels

The language uses long, short and nasal vowels, and distinguishes them in writing, along with low tone:[5]

  • Short:
    • a /a/
    • e /e/
    • ı /i/
    • o /o/
    • ą /ã/
    • ę /ẽ/
    • ı̨ /ĩ/
    • ǫ /õ/
  • Long:
    • aa /aː/
    • ee /eː/
    • ıı /iː/
    • oo /oː/
    • ąą /ãː/
    • ęę /ẽː/
    • ı̨ı̨ /ĩː/
    • ǫǫ /õː/
  • Nasal vowels are marked by an ogonek (called wįghǫą, 'its little nose', in Tłı̨chǫ) e.g. ą.
  • Low tone is marked with a grave accent (called wets'aà, 'its hat', in Tłı̨chǫ), e.g. à.
  • High tone is never marked.

Grammar

Typologically, Tłı̨chǫ is an agglutinating, polysynthetic head-marking language, but many of its affixes combine into contractions more like fusional languages. The canonical word order of Tłı̨chǫ is SOV. Tłı̨chǫ words are modified primarily by prefixes, which is unusual for an SOV language (suffixes are expected).

Like Spanish and Portuguese, Tłı̨chǫ has two verbs similar to English 'be'. One is used for ways of being that are more dynamic or temporary; the other for more permanent and immutable properties. For example, nàzèe-dǫǫ̀ ts’įįlį and nàzèe-dǫǫ̀ ats’įįt’e both mean 'we are hunters', but the first means that the speakers are currently hunters (for example, part of a hunting party), while the second implies that hunting is their regular profession.

In addition to verbs and nouns, there are pronouns, clitics of various functions, demonstratives, numerals, postpositions, adverbs, and conjunctions in Tłı̨chǫ. The class of adjectives is very small, probably around two dozen words: most descriptive words are verbs rather than adjectives.

Examples

Example words and phrases:[6][7]

  • Tłı̨chǫ got'ı̨ı̨̀ 'Tłı̨chǫ people'
  • tłı̨ 'dog'
  • tłı̨cho' 'horse' (literally 'big dog')
  • łıwe / łıe 'fish'
  • detʼǫ 'duck'
  • eyè 'egg'
  • ejietʼò 'milk'
  • dìga 'wolf'
  • tʼooh 'poplar'
  • deh 'river'
  • elà 'canoe'
  • 'island'
  • kwe 'rock'
  • sìh /shìh 'mount'
  • 'lake'
  • zhah 'snow'
  • chǫ /tsǫ' 'rain'
  • ło 'smoke'
  • kǫ̀ 'house'
  • degoo 'white'
  • dezǫ 'black'
  • dekʼo 'red'
  • dǫ nàke laànì nàtso 'strong like two people', the motto of the Tłįchǫ Government

See also

References

  1. ^ Dogrib at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Official Languages of the Northwest Territories (map)
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Dogrib". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Statistics Canada: 2006 Census
  5. ^ a b Coleman, Phyllis Young (1979). Dogrib Phonology. Ann Arbor, Michigan, [etc.]: University Microfilms International. 
  6. ^ Saxon, Leslie; Siemens, Mary (1996). Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì Enįhtł'è = Dogrib Dictionary. Rae-Edzo, NWT, Canada: Dogrib Divisional Board of Education. 
  7. ^ Saxon, Leslie; Siemens, Mary (2011), Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì Multimedia Dictionary, Victoria, BC, Canada: U. of Victoria Linguistics Dept., archived from the original on 2014-05-05, retrieved 2014-05-12 

External links

  • Alphabet and pronunciation at Omniglot
  • Tłı̨chǫ Yatıì Multimedia Dictionary
  • Dictionaries and Tåîchô language sources in PDF format
  • Dogrib basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.