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Title: Connation  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Glossary of botanical terms, Inflorescence, Strobiloideae, Flower, Nagkesar seed oil
Collection: Plant Anatomy
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Connation in anthers in several genera, such as Solanum.

flower in the center of which is a projecting tube formed of the fused filaments of the stamens; the free anthers form a spreading cluster at its tip
The stamens of this Hibiscus are synfilamentous.

Synanthery in a (dissected) flower of Sinningia cardinalis

Terms for connation of flower parts

  • Synsepalous: All the sepals of a flower are fused into a cup or tube, the fused portion is the calyx tube and any non fused tips are the calyx lobes.
  • Sympetalous: All the petals of a flower are fused into a cup, tube, or other shape.
  • Stamens:
    • Synandrous: Stamens are fused in an unspecified manner
    • Synfilamentous: Stamens are fused by their filaments
    • Synantherous: Stamens are fused by their anthers
  • Syncarpous: Carpels are fused together to form a compound ovary

The corresponding terms for parts that are free (not connate) begin with one of the prefixes "apo-" or "dialy-". An apopetalous (dialypetalous) corolla has free, unfused petals.


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