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Buryatia

 

Buryatia

Republic of Buryatia
Республика Бурятия (Russian)
Буряад Орон (Buryat)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of the Republic of Buryatia
Coordinates:
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Siberian[1]
Economic region East Siberian[2]
Established May 30, 1923
Capital Ulan-Ude
Government (as of August 2010)
 • Head[3] Vyacheslav Nagovitsyn[4]
 • Legislature People's Khural[3]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[5]
 • Total 351,300 km2 (135,600 sq mi)
Area rank 15th
Population (2010 Census)[6]
 • Total 972,021
 • Rank 54th
 • Density[7] 2.77/km2 (7.2/sq mi)
 • Urban 58.4%
 • Rural 41.6%
Time zone(s) IRKT (UTC+08:00)[8]
ISO 3166-2 RU-BU
License plates 03
Official languages Russian;[9] Buryat[10]
Official website

The Republic of Buryatia (Russian: Респу́блика Буря́тия, tr. Respublika Buryatiya; IPA: ; Buryat: Буряад Орон, Buryaad Oron, ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Its capital is the city of Ulan-Ude. Its area is 351,300 square kilometers (135,600 sq mi) with a population of 972,021 (2010 Census).[6]

Contents

  • Geography 1
    • Rivers 1.1
    • Lakes 1.2
    • Mountains 1.3
    • Natural resources 1.4
    • Climate 1.5
  • Administrative divisions 2
  • Demographics 3
    • Vital statistics 3.1
      • Demographics for 2007 3.1.1
    • Ethnic groups 3.2
  • History 4
  • Politics 5
  • Economy 6
  • Education 7
  • Religion 8
  • Tourism 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • Sources 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14

Geography

Buryatia countryside just south of Ulan-Ude

The republic is located in the south-central region of Siberia along the eastern shore of Lake Baikal.

Rivers

Major rivers include:

Lakes

Map of Buryatia

Mountains

Over 80% of the republic's territory is located in the mountainous region, including the Baikal Mountains on the northern shores of Lake Baikal.

Natural resources

The republic's natural resources include gold, tungsten, zinc, uranium, and more.

Climate

  • Average annual temperature: −1.6 °C (29.1 °F)
  • Average January temperature: −22 °C (−8 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +18 °C (64 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: 244 millimeters (9.6 in)

Administrative divisions

Demographics

Population: 972,021 (2010 Census);[6] 981,238 (2002 Census);[11] 1,041,119 (1989 Census).[12]

17-12-1926 17-01-1939 17-01-1959 15-01-1970 17-01-1979 17-01-1989 09-10-2002 14-10-2010
Total population 491,236 545,766 673,326 812,251 899,398 1,038,252 981,238 972,021
Average annual population growth +1.7% +1.1% +1.5% -0.4% -0.1%
Males 248,513 467,984
Females 242,723 513,254
Females per 1000 males 977 1,097
Proportion urban 9.3% 59.6%
Territory (km2) 368,392 351,334 351,334 351,334 351,334 351,334 351,334 351,334
Population density/km2 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.3 2.6 3.0 2.8 2.8

Vital statistics

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service[13]
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 816 14,766 6,301 8,465 18.1 7.7 10.4
1975 862 17,751 7,586 10,165 20.6 8.8 11.8
1980 921 19,859 8,734 11,125 21.6 9.5 12.1
1985 993 23,975 9,529 14,446 24.1 9.6 14.5
1990 1,050 19,185 9,602 9,583 18.3 9.1 9.1 2,18
1991 1,052 16,868 9,753 7,115 16.0 9.3 6.8 2,03
1992 1,049 13,944 10,347 3,597 13.3 9.9 3.4 1,87
1993 1,043 11,981 12,388 - 407 11.5 11.9 -0.4 1,65
1994 1,039 12,327 13,650 -1,323 11.9 13.1 -1.3 1,66
1995 1,035 12,311 12,588 - 277 11.9 12.2 -0.3 1,60
1996 1,031 12,159 12,441 - 282 11.8 12.1 -0.3 1,57
1997 1,025 11,555 12,111 - 556 11.3 11.8 -0.5 1,51
1998 1,017 11,746 11,481 265 11.6 11.3 0.3 1,53
1999 1,009 11,468 13,114 -1,646 11.4 13.0 -1.6 1,42
2000 1,001 11,654 13,155 -1,501 11.6 13.1 -1.5 1,42
2001 992 11,678 13,858 -2,180 11.8 14.0 -2.2 1,44
2002 983 12,830 14,404 -1,574 13.1 14.7 -1.6 1,52
2003 977 13,177 15,056 -1,879 13.5 15.4 -1.9 1,51
2004 973 13,399 14,868 -1,469 13.8 15.3 -1.5 1,49
2005 969 13,551 15,144 -1,593 14.0 15.6 -1.6 1,41
2006 966 14,193 13,930 263 14.7 14.4 0.3 1,41
2007 965 15,460 12,802 2,658 16.0 13.3 2.8 1,60
2008 966 16,372 12,948 3,424 16.9 13.4 3.5 1,68
2009 968 16,729 12,466 4,263 17.3 12.9 4.4 2,03
2010 972 16,535 12,386 4,149 17.0 12.7 4.3 1,99
2011 972 16,507 12,299 4,208 17.0 12.7 4.3 2,03
2012 972 17,006 12,064 4,942 17.5 12.4 5.1 2.14
2013 973 17,108 11,479 5,629 17.6 11.8 5.8 2.21
2014 976 17,141 11,194 5,947 17.5 11.5 6.0 2.26(e)

Demographics for 2007

Source:[14]

District Births Deaths Growth Pp (2007) BR DR NGR
The Republic of Buryatia 12,337 9,833 2,504 960,000 17.13 13.66 0.35%
Ulan-Ude 4,260 3,517 743 373,300 15.22 12.56 0.27%
Bichursky District 339 318 21 26,900 16.80 15.76 0.10%
Dzhidinsky District 512 309 203 30,800 22.16 13.38 0.88%
Yeravninsky District 244 191 53 18,600 17.49 13.69 0.38%
Zaigrayevsky District 714 630 84 48,700 19.55 17.25 0.23%
Zakamensky District 492 322 170 30,400 21.58 14.12 0.75%
Ivolginsky District 498 320 178 31,000 21.42 13.76 0.77%
Kabansky District 702 779 -77 64,400 14.53 16.13 -0.16%
Kizhinginsky District 303 192 111 18,700 21.60 13.69 0.79%
Kyakhtinsky District 629 393 236 40,500 20.71 12.94 0.78%
Mukhorshibirsky District 338 319 19 28,000 16.10 15.19 0.09%
Pribaykalsky District 423 357 66 28,900 19.52 16.47 0.30%
Selenginsky District 628 522 106 47,500 17.63 14.65 0.30%
Tarbagataysky District 205 216 -11 16,900 16.17 17.04 -0.09%
Tunkinsky District 304 249 55 23,000 17.62 14.43 0.32%
Khorinsky District 314 222 92 19,200 21.81 15.42 0.64%
Barguzinsky District 367 272 95 25,600 19.11 14.17 0.49%
Bauntovsky Evenkiysky District 126 92 34 10,500 16.00 11.68 0.43%
Kurumkansky District 232 129 103 15,600 19.83 11.03 0.88%
Muysky District 179 112 67 15,600 15.30 9.57 0.57%
Okinsky District 73 37 36 5,100 19.08 9.67 0.94%
Severo-Baykalsky District 196 161 35 15,200 17.19 14.12 0.31%
Severobaykalsk 259 174 85 25,600 13.49 9.06 0.44%

Ethnic groups

According to the 2010 Census,[6] ethnic Russians make up two thirds of the republic's population, while the ethnic Buryats are only 30%. Other groups include Ukrainians (0.6%), Tatars (0.7%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

Ethnic
group
1926 Census1 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census2
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Buryats 214,957 43.8% 116,382 21.3% 135,798 20.2% 178,660 22.0% 206,860 23.0% 249,525 24.0% 272,910 27.8% 286,839 30.0%
Soyots 161 0.0% 2,739 0.3% 3,579 0.4%
Russians 258,796 52.7% 393,057 72.0% 502,568 74.6% 596,960 73.5% 647,785 72.0% 726,165 69.9% 665,512 67.8% 630,783 66.1%
Tatars 3,092 0.6% 3,840 0.7% 8,058 1.2% 9,991 1.2% 10,290 1.1% 10,496 1.0% 8,189 0.8% 6,813 0.7%
Ukrainians 1,982 0.4% 13,392 2.5% 10,183 1.5% 10,769 1.3% 15,290 1.7% 22,868 2.2% 9,585 1.0% 5,654 0.6%
Evenks 2,808 0.6% 1,818 0.3% 1,335 0.2% 1,685 0.2% 1,543 0.2% 1,679 0.2% 2,334 0.2% 2,974 0.3%
Others 9,440 1.9% 17,277 3.2% 15,384 2.3% 14,186 1.7% 17,630 2.0% 27,519 2.7% 19,969 2.0% 18,360 1.9%
1 In 1926, the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR included Aga-Buryatia, Ust-Orda Buryatia, and Olkhonsky District. These territories were transferred to Chita and Irkutsk Oblasts in 1937. Consequently, the results of the 1926 census cannot be compared to the results of the censuses of 1939 and later.

2 17,019 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[15]

History

Unusual blue diopsidite skarn from the Dovyren Highlands, Buryatia. This attractive tumble-polished rock is around 700my old.
Modern Buryat national dress and string musical instrument, the yatag.

Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in northern, central and eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, north-western China, southern, central-eastern and southern Baikal territory. The people of Slab Grave culture were Mongols.[16][17]

The Xiongnu Empire (209 BC-93 CE) governed the territory of modern Buryat Republic. The identity of the ethnic core of Xiongnu has been a subject of varied hypotheses and proposals by scholars include Mongolic and Turkic.

The Merkits were a Mongolic confederation of three tribes, inhabiting the basin of the Selenge and Orkhon Rivers. They were most likely absorbed by other Mongol tribes (Oirats, Buryats) and others who fled to Kypchaks mixed with them. At the beginning of the 9th – 13th centuries, the Khori-Tümed Mongols lived near the western side of Lake Baikal. In the 13th century, they were the inhabitants in southern Irkutsk and southwestern Buryatia.[18] In 1207, Genghis Khan, after conquering the Khori-Tumed, decided to move some of these groups south and these people eventually settled in Inner Mongolia.

The Bayad Mongols lived in west of Selenge River (Jida river, Kyakhtinsky District) and they moved to Altai Mountains in the 17th century.

In the 12-13th centuries, the Barga Mongols appeared as tribes near Lake Baikal, named Bargujin.[18]

The territory of current Buryat Republic has been ruled by the Mongolic Xianbei state (93-234), Rouran Khaganate (330-555), Mongol Empire (1206-1368) and Northern Yuan (1368-1691).

The area of the present-day Buryatia was first colonized in the 17th century by Russians in search of wealth, furs, and gold.

In 1923, the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Buryat: Буряадай Автономито Совет Социалис Республика; Russian: Бурятская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) was created as a result of the merger of State of Buryat-Mongolia and Mongol-Buryat Oblasts. In 1937, Aga Buryatia and Ust-Orda Buryatia were detached from the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR and merged with Chita and Irkutsk Oblasts, respectively. In 1958, the name "Mongol" was removed from the name of the republic. The Buryat ASSR declared its sovereignty in 1990 and adopted the name Republic of Buryatia in 1992. However, it remained an autonomous republic within the Russian Federation.

The Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Soviet Union.

Politics

Modern Buryat home with instruments, scrolls, and weapons typical of Buryatia

The head of the Republic is the Head (formerly President), who is appointed by the President of Russia for a four-year term. Between 1991-2007, the President was Leonid Vasilyevich Potapov, who was elected on July 1, 1994, re-elected in 1998 (with 63.25% of votes), and then re-elected again on June 23, 2002 (with over 67% of votes). Prior to the elections, Potapov was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic—the highest post at that time.

The current Head of the Republic is Vyacheslav Nagovitsyn, who was appointed by Vladimir Putin in 2007.[19]

The Republic's parliament is the People's Khural, popularly elected every five years. The People's Khural has 65 deputies. Matvei Gershevich is the current Chairman of the People's Khural since 2007.

The Republic's Constitution was adopted on February 22, 1994.

Economy

The republic's economy is composed of important agricultural and commercial products including wheat, vegetables, potatoes, timber, leather, graphite, and textiles. Fishing, hunting, fur farming, sheep and cattle farming, mining, stock raising, engineering, and food processing are also important economic generators.

Education

The higher education institutions of the republic include Buryat State University, Buryat State Academy of Agriculture, East Siberian State Academy of Arts and Culture, and East Siberia State University of Technology and Management.

Religion




Religion in Buryatia (2012)[20][21]

  Russian Orthodox (27.4%)
  Buddhism (19.8%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (4%)
  Rodnovery, Tengrism and shamanism (2%)
  Other Orthodox (1%)
  Protestantism (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (25%)
  Atheist and non-religious (13%)
  Other and undeclared (10.8%)

Traditionally, Buryats adhered to archaic beliefs and cults, which were based on the deification of nature, belief in spirits and the possibility of their magic influence on the surroundings. This was embraced by Shamanism, which systematised tribal beliefs and cults. From the second half of the 17th century, beliefs and cults in the Shaman form were displaced by Buddhism, which became widespread in ethnic Buryatia. By the end of the 19th century, the majority of Buryats were part of the Buddhist tradition. A synthesis of Buddhism and traditional beliefs that formed a system of ecological traditions has constituted a major attribute of Buryat eco-culture.[22]

As of a 2012 official survey[20] 27.4% of the population adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 19.8% to Buddhism, 2% to Rodnovery, Tengrism or Buryat shamanism, 4% declares to be generically unaffiliated Christian (excluding Catholic and Protestant), 1% follows other Orthodox Churches, 1% Protestantism. In addition, 25% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% to be atheist, and 10.8% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey.[20]

Soyot (0.37%). Buryats constitute 30.04% of the total population.

Most urban Buryats are either Buddhist or Orthodox, while those in the rural areas often adhere to Yellow shamanism, a mixture of shamanism and Buddhism, or to Black shamanism. There are also Tengrist movements. Siberian Tatars are around 0.7% of the population. However due to isolation from the main body of Tatars, many of them now are either non-religious or Orthodox. Islam is followed by immigrant groups like Azeris and Uzbeks, who constitute another 0.7% of the population.

Landscape of southern Buryatia

Tourism

Lake Baikal is a popular tourist destination, especially in summer.

See also

References

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ a b Constitution, Article 5.3
  4. ^ Official website of the Head of the Republic of Buryatia. Biography of Vyacheslav Vladimirovich Nagovitsyn
  5. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). )"Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation"Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  6. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian).  
  7. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  10. ^ Constitution, Article 67
  11. ^  
  12. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  13. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  14. ^ [2]
  15. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  16. ^ N.Navaan, Bronze Age of Eastern Mongolia
  17. ^ History of Mongolia, Volume I, 2003
  18. ^ a b History of Mongolia, Volume II, 2003
  19. ^ "Биография (in Russian)". Retrieved 19 November 2012. 
  20. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  21. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  22. ^ Esuna Dugarova. Buryatia – a symbol of Eurasia in the heartland of Baikal. UN Special (magazine)

Sources

  • Верховный Совет Республики Бурятия. 22 февраля 1994 г. «Республика Бурятия. Конституция», в ред. Закона №332-IV от 7 июля 2008 г. (Supreme Council of the Republic of Buryatia. February 22, 1994 Republic of Buryatia. Constitution, as amended by the Law #332-IV of July 7, 2008. ).

Further reading

  • Leisse, Olaf; Utta-Kristin Leisse (September 2007). "A Siberian Challenge: Dealing with Multiethnicity in the Republic of Buryatia".  

External links

  • Official website of the Republic of Buryatia
  • (Russian) Official website of the Republic of Buryatia
  • Official website of the Republic of Buryatia (in Buryat)
  • (Russian) Buryatia.org, site about life in the Republic of Buryatia
  • Article on Buddhism in Buryatia and Mongolia
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