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Brownsville, Texas

Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas
City of Brownsville
Skyline of Brownsville, Cameron County, Texas
Nickname(s): "The Green City"
Motto: On the border by the sea...
Location in Cameron County
Location in Cameron County
Brownsville is located in USA
Location in the contiguous United States
Country  United States of America
State  Texas
County  Cameron
 • Type Council-Manager
 • City Council Mayor: Antonio "Tony" Martinez
Commissioner At-Large "A": Cesar de Leon
Commissioner At-Large "B": Rose M. Z. Gowen
Commissioner District 1: Ricardo Longoria, Jr.
Commissioner District 2: Jessica Tetreau-Kalifa
Commissioner District 3: Deborah Portillo
Commissioner District 4: John Villarreal
 • City Manager Charlie Cabler
 • City 146.3 sq mi (378.9 km2)
 • Land 132.3 sq mi (342.7 km2)
 • Water 13.9 sq mi (36.1 km2)
Elevation 33 ft (10 m)
Population (2014 estimate)
 • City 183,046
 • Density 1,383/sq mi (534.1/km2)
 • Metro 420,392 (US)
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 78520, 78521, 78522, 78523, 78526
Area code(s) 956
FIPS code 48-10768[1]
GNIS feature ID 1372749[2]
Website .us.cobwww

Brownsville is the sixteenth most populous city in the state of Texas, with a population at the 2010 census of 175,023[3] and an estimated population in 2014 of 183,046.[4] It is located at the southernmost tip of Texas, on the northern bank of the Rio Grande, directly north and across the border from Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The 2014 U.S. Census Bureau estimate placed the Brownsville-Harlingen metropolitan area population at 420,392, making it the ninth most populous metropolitan area in the state of Texas.[5] In addition, the international Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area was estimated to have a population of 1,136,995.[6] Brownsville has one of the highest poverty rates in the nation, and is frequently cited as having the highest percentage of residents below the federal poverty level out of all cities in the nation.[7]

The Brownsville urban area is one of the fastest growing in the United States. The city's population dramatically increased after it experienced a boom in the steel industry during the first decade of the 1900s, when steel output tripled.[8] In recent times, the Port of Brownsville has become a major economic hub for South Texas, where shipments arrive from other parts of the United States, from Mexico, and from around the world.[9] Brownsville's economy is mainly based on its international trade with Mexico through the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and is home to one of the fastest growing manufacturing sectors in the nation.[10] Brownsville has often been recognized as having one of the best pro-business climates in the United States,[11] and the city has also been ranked among the least expensive places to live in the U.S.[12]

Brownsville served as a site for several battles and events in the Texas Revolution,[13] the Mexican–American War,[14] and the American Civil War.[15] Right across the U.S–Mexico border lies Matamoros, Tamaulipas, a city with a population of 500,000 people and a major site of the Mexican War of Independence,[16] the Mexican Revolution,[17] and the French Intervention.[18]


  • History 1
  • Geography 2
    • Flora 2.1
    • Climate 2.2
  • Demographics 3
  • Economy 4
    • Top employers 4.1
    • Technology growth in the 2010s 4.2
  • Government 5
    • City government 5.1
  • County Commission Representation 6
    • State representation 6.1
    • Federal representation 6.2
      • Social Security Administration 6.2.1
      • Federal Courthouse 6.2.2
      • Military installations 6.2.3
      • National parks 6.2.4
  • Education 7
    • Universities and colleges 7.1
    • Vocational schools 7.2
    • Primary and secondary schools 7.3
      • Public schools 7.3.1
        • State charter schools
      • Private and parochial schools 7.3.2
    • Public libraries 7.4
    • University libraries 7.5
  • Transportation 8
    • Railroad 8.1
    • Mass transit 8.2
    • Highways 8.3
    • International bridges 8.4
    • Airport 8.5
  • Art and culture 9
  • Sports 10
  • Entertainment and nightlife 11
    • Theater 11.1
    • Festivals 11.2
    • Golfing 11.3
  • Media 12
    • Newspapers 12.1
    • Television 12.2
    • Radio 12.3
    • Advertising Agencies 12.4
  • Points of interest 13
    • Sanctuary 13.1
  • Notable people 14
  • Sister cities 15
  • See also 16
  • References 17
  • External links 18


Brownsville in 1857

In 1845, construction of a fort on the Mexican border was commissioned due to increased instability in the region on the eve of the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848. Before the completion of the construction, the Mexican Army began the Siege of Fort Texas, during the first active campaign in the Mexican–American War, between 3 and 9 May 1846. The first battle of the war occurred on 8 May 1846, when General Zachary Taylor received word of the siege of the fort. Taylor's forces rushed to help, but Mexican troops intercepted them, resulting in the Battle of Palo Alto about 5 miles (8.0 km) north of present-day Brownsville. The next morning the Mexican forces had retreated, and Taylor's troops caught up with them, resulting in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, which took place within the present city limits. When Taylor finally arrived at the besieged Fort Texas, it was found that two soldiers had died, one of them the fort's commander, Major Jacob Brown. In his honor, General Taylor renamed the fort Fort Brown. An old cannon at the University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College marks the spot where Major Brown received his fatal wound.

Battle of Palo Alto fought on May 8, 1846.

The city of Brownsville was originally established late in 1848 by Charles Stillman, and was made the county seat of the new Cameron County on 13 January 1849. The state originally incorporated the city on 24 January 1850. This was repealed on 1 April 1852, due to a land-ownership dispute between Stillman and the former owners. The state reincorporated the city on 7 February 1853, which remains in effect. The issue of ownership was not decided until 1879, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Stillman.

On July 13, 1859, the First Cortina War started. Juan Nepomuceno Cortina became one of the most important historical figures of the area, and continued to exert a decisive influence in the local events until his arrest in 1875. The First Cortina War ended on December 27, 1859. In May 1861, the brief Second Cortina War took place.

During the American Civil War Brownsville served as a smuggling point for Confederate goods into Mexico, most importantly cotton smuggled to European ships waiting at the Mexican port of Bagdad. Initially the Confederates controlled Fort Brown. In November 1863, Union troops landed at Port Isabel and marched for Brownsville to stop the smuggling. In the ensuing battle of Brownsville Confederate forces abandoned the fort, blowing it up with 8,000 pounds (3,600 kg) of explosives. In 1864 Confederate forces commanded by John Salmon 'Rip' Ford reoccupied the town. On May 15, 1865, a month after the surrender had been signed at Appomattox Court House, the Battle of Palmito Ranch (generally accepted as the war's last battle) was fought and won by the Confederates. Ulysses S. Grant sent Union General Frederick Steele to Brownsville to patrol the Mexican-American border after Civil War to aid the Juaristas with military supplies.

On 13 and 14 August 1906, Brownsville was the site of the Brownsville Affair. Racial tensions were high between white townsfolk and black infantrymen stationed at Fort Brown. On the night of 13 August, one white bartender was killed and a white police officer was wounded by rifle shots in the street. Townsfolk, including the mayor, accused the infantrymen of the murders. Without affording them a chance to defend themselves in a hearing, President Theodore Roosevelt dishonorably discharged the entire 167-member regiment due to their alleged "conspiracy of silence". Further investigations in the 1970s found that they were not at fault, and the Nixon Administration reversed all dishonorable discharges.

On September 8, 1926, The Junior College of the Lower Rio Grande Valley (later known as Texas Southmost College) admitted its first class. In 1945, Fort Brown was decommissioned and in 1948 the City and College acquired the land. Between 1945 and 1970, Brownsville's population continued to grow gradually, doubling from 25,000 to 52,000 people. In 1991, Brownsville received a university via the partnership with the University of Texas at Brownsville.

Brownsville was declared an All-America City in the year 2001 and again in 2014.


Brownsville is located on the U.S.–Mexico border (marked here by the Rio Grande) opposite Matamoros, Tamaulipas.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 146.3 square miles (378.9 km2), making it the largest American city by land area in the lower Rio Grande Valley and the third largest American city by land area along the U.S.-Mexico border, after San Diego, California and El Paso, Texas. 132.3 square miles (342.7 km2) of Brownsville's area is land, and 13.9 square miles (36.1 km2) of it (9.54%) is water.[3]

Brownsville is among the southernmost of all contiguous U.S. cities. Within the contiguous United States, only a handful of municipalities in Florida's Miami-Dade and Monroe counties (plus Everglades City in Collier County) are further south than Brownsville, which lies at exactly the same latitude as North Miami Beach in northern Miami-Dade County.

Brownsville is now one of the first cities in the U.S. and Texas to ban the use of plastic shopping bags, reaching closer toward its goals of a greener, cleaner city.[19] This has led other cities in the area to also consider such a ban. In addition, Forbes has identified Brownsville as one of 12 metropolitan areas in the U.S. with the cleanest air; Laredo was the only other Texas metropolitan area to be among the 12.[20]


Broadleaf evergreen plants, including palms, dominate Brownsville neighborhoods to a greater degree than is seen elsewhere in Texas—even in nearby cities such as Harlingen and San Benito. Soils are mostly of clay to silty clay loam texture, moderately alkaline (pH 8.2) to strongly alkaline (pH8.5) and with a significant degree of salinity in many places.[21]


Climate chart ()
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Brownsville has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa),[22] just outside of a hot semi-arid climate. Yet the nearby ocean waters and winds of the Gulf of Mexico help keep Brownsville cooler during the summer relative to cities further inland such as Laredo and McAllen. Thus temperatures above 100 °F (37.8 °C) are uncommon, with an average of only 1.1 days reaching that level of heat. At the other extreme, there is an average of one to two nights per year with freezing temperatures.[23] Average monthly rainfall demonstrates a strong September maximum; the next-wettest month is October, with a slight May–June peak across the rest of the year. Generally, November through April represents a marked drier season, and Brownsville can go for weeks with minimal, even negligible, rainfall, especially over the cooler season. However, the city at times can reach precipitation amounts as high as 38 inches in a year alone. Extreme temperatures range from 12 °F (−11 °C) on February 13, 1899 to 106 °F (41 °C) on March 27, 1984. The greatest snowfall in a day and a season was 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), which fell on December 25, 2004.[23]

On December 25, 2004, Brownsville had its first instance of measurable snow in 109 years,[24] with 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), and the first recorded White Christmas. This was part of the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm.[25]

Brownsville's location at the intersection of different climate regimes (subtropical, Chihuahuan desert, Gulf Coast plain, and Great Plains) causes it to be a birding location. Its unique network of resacas (distributaries of the Rio Grande and oxbow lakes) provide habitat for nesting / breeding birds of various types - most notably during the Spring and Fall migrations.

Climate data for Brownsville, Texas (1981−2010 normals, extremes 1878−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 93
Average high °F (°C) 70.6
Daily mean °F (°C) 61.1
Average low °F (°C) 51.6
Record low °F (°C) 18
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.27
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 7.3 5.5 4.4 4.0 4.9 5.9 5.3 6.6 10.0 7.5 6.0 7.0 74.4
Average relative humidity (%) 79.3 77.4 74.6 75.1 76.5 75.0 73.2 73.8 76.3 75.3 76.1 78.2 75.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 130.6 151.3 206.8 232.7 266.4 306.5 334.4 306.4 252.0 228.3 166.2 130.7 2,712.3
Percent possible sunshine 39 48 56 61 64 74 79 76 68 64 51 40 60
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[23][26][27]


As of the census[1] of 2010, there were 175,023 people, 38,174 households, and 32,180 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,207.1 people per square mile (466.0/km2). There were 53,936 housing units at an average density of 372.0 per square mile (143.6/km2). Hispanic or Latino of any race were 93.19% of the population.[29]

There were 38,174 households out of which 50.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.3% were married couples living together, 20.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 15.7% were non-families. 13.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.62 and the average family size was 3.99.

In the city the population was spread out with 34.6% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, and 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,468, and the median income for a family was $26,186. Males had a median income of $21,739 versus $17,116 for females.


An important pillar of the economy is the Port of Brownsville. The port, located 2 miles (3.2 km) from the city, provides an important link between the road networks of nearby Mexico, and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway of Texas.[30]

The port's hinterland, from where it draws cargo, is Monterrey, Mexico, just 198 miles to the West, which is one of Latin America's largest industrial cities.

Top employers

According to the Brownsville Economic Development Council (BEDC),[31] the top employers in the city as of May 2015 were:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Brownsville Independent School District 7,670
2 Cameron County 1,950
3 University of Texas Rio Grande Valley 1,734
4 Keppel AmFELS 1,650
5 Walmart 1,413
6 Abundant Life Home Health 1,300
7 City of Brownsville 1,227
8 Caring For You Home Health 1,200
9 H-E-B Grocery 975
10 Maximus 950

Technology growth in the 2010s

SpaceX is building the South Texas Launch Site, a private space launch facility east of Brownsville on the Gulf Coast.[32][33] The new launch facility is expected to draw US$85 million to the city of Brownsville and eventually generate approximately US$51 million in annual salaries from some 500 jobs created by 2024.[34] The facility itself is projected to employ 75–100 full-time workers in the early years with up to 150 full-time employees/contractors by 2019.[35]

As of October 2014, the University of Texas at Brownsville and the Brownsville Economic Development Council (BEDC), in collaboration with SpaceX, are building radio-frequency (RF) technology facilities for STARGATESpacecraft Tracking and Astronomical Research into Gigahertz Astrophysical Transient Emission. The facility is intended to provide students and faculty access to RF technologies widely used in spaceflight operations, and will include satellite and spacecraft tracking.[36] BEDC purchased five lots in Boca Chica Village totaling 2.3 acres (0.93 ha) near the SpaceX launch site and renamed it as the STARGATE subdivision. The beach location will include a 12,000 square feet (1,100 m2) tracking center."[37] STARGATE has received several startup grants including US$1.2 million from the US Economic Development Administration.[38]


City government

Picture of Brownsville; on the right is the "Old Federal Courthouse", where city commission meetings are held.

Brownsville has a council–manager style of government. The mayor and six city commissioners, two at-large and four district, serve staggered four-year terms. Elections are held for one at-large and two district seats every two years. Municipal elections are held on the first Saturday of May in odd numbered years. Once a winner is determined, the commissioner-elect will be seated at the next regular meeting of the Brownsville City Commission. City elected officials are non-partisan, meaning that they do not have a party affiliation. They may be personally affiliated with a political party but this has no bearing on the office.

As of 2015, the members of the commission were:[39]

  • Mayor: Antonio "Tony" Martinez (Since 2011)
  • Commissioner At-Large "A": Vacant
  • Commissioner At-Large "B": Dr. Rose M.Z. Gowen (Since 2009)
  • Commissioner District 1: Ricardo Longoria Jr. (Since 2003)
  • Commissioner District 2: Jessica Tetreau-Kalifa (Since 2011)
  • Commissioner District 3: Deborah Portillo (Since 2013)
  • Commissioner District 4: John Villarreal (Since 2011)

The next regular elections for the City will occur in the following years:[39]

  • Mayor: 2015
  • At-Large "A": 2015
  • At-Large "B": 2017
  • District 1: 2015
  • District 2: 2015
  • District 3: 2017
  • District 4: 2017

The City Commission appoints the City Manager. Since 2006, the City Manager is Charlie Cabler.

The City Commission also appoints a six-member Public Utilities Board for a four-year term. Members are limited to two consecutive or non-consecutive terms. The Mayor is an ex-officio member of the Board.

County Commission Representation

The majority of Brownsville is represented by two of the four Commission Precinct Commissioners. They have staggered four-year terms. County offices are partisan, thus the Democratic and Republican Parties will hold primaries in the March of the year of the year that office term expires. The Candidate who receives the highest amount of votes will then receive their party's nomination. The Libertarian Party selects their candidate by means of their County Convention. The nominees of each party will then run in a general election in November, the winner of which will become the Commissioner the following January.

The following Commissioners represent at least part of the City of Brownsville:

  • South and East Brownsville are represented by Precinct 1 Commissioner, Sofia Benavides (D). (Since 2006)
  • North, Central Brownsville are represented by Precinct 2 Commissioner, Alex Dominguez (D). (Since 2014)
  • A sizable portion of Brownsville farm and scrub land north of FM 511 is represented by Precinct 3 Commissioner, David Garza (D). (Since 2001)

The Chief Executive of the County or the Cameron County Judge is Pete Sepulveda, Jr. (N/A) (Since 2015)

The next regular elections for the County Commission Precincts 1, 2, and 3 will occur in the following years:

  • Precinct 1: 2016
  • Precinct 2: 2018
  • Precinct 3: 2016
  • Judge: 2018

State representation

The City of Brownsville falls under two State House of Representatives districts. Each Representative has a two-year term and is elected in the same manner as other partisan elected officials.

  • District 37: Rene O. Oliveira (D) (Since 1991)
  • District 38: Eduardo "Eddie" Lucio, III (D) (Since 2007)

All of Brownsville is represented by Texas Senatorial District 27, the imcumbent Senator is Eduardo "Eddie" Lucio, Jr. (D) (Since 1991)

Federal representation

All of Brownsville is represented by U.S. Congressional District 34, the imcumbent Representative is Filemon Vela, Jr. (D) (Since 2013)

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Brownsville. The Brownsville Main Post Office is located at 1535 East Los Ebanos Boulevard.[43] Downtown Brownsville is served by the Downtown Brownsville Post Office at 1001 East Elizabeth Street.[44]

There is also a National Weather Service office and doppler radar site in 20 South Vermillion Avenue Brownsville, Texas. They provide forecasts and radar coverage for Deep South Texas and the adjacent coastal waters.

Social Security Administration

  • Social Security Administration located at 3115 Central Boulevard,

Federal Courthouse

Military installations

National parks


Universities and colleges

UT School of Public Health

The School of Public Health (UTSPH) opened in 2001 as part of the legislated Regional Academic Health Center program, or RAHC and is physically located on the campus of the University of Texas at Brownsville. UTSPH - Brownsville is a regional campus of the University of Texas School of Public Health statewide network which offer students a graduate certificate in public health and the Master of Public Health (M.P.H.) graduate degree. Starting in 2009, the Brownsville Regional Campus also began offering a PhD program in Epidemiology and a Doctorate in Public Health (DrPH) in Health Promotion, the only program's of their kind in South Texas. Major public health concerns of the faculty and researchers found here in the Lower Rio Grande Valley Texas include diabetes, tuberculosis, obesity, cardiovascular disease and hepatitis. Other areas of public health significance include physical activity, behavioral journalism, healthy living, diet and lifestyles activities. The Brownsville Regional Campus is also developing a strong research focus in genetics and its relationship to infectious and chronic disease.[49]

Vocational schools

Primary and secondary schools

Public schools

Most of Brownsville is served by Brownsville Independent School District. The BISD counted its total enrollment in the 2010-11 at 49,155 students in 57 schools. It is the 17th largest school district in Texas. A portion of northern Brownsville is served by the Los Fresnos Consolidated Independent School District.

In addition, Brownsville residents are allowed to apply to magnet schools operated by the South Texas Independent School District, as well as BISD magnet schools. Each BISD high school has a magnet school within the school, Gladys Porter High School is home to the High School for Engineering Professions. Homer Hanna High School is home of the Tech Med Magnet Program for Medical and Health Professions. Lopez High School houses the district's Fine Arts Academy, James Pace High School has a Criminal Justice Magnet School and Simon Rivera High School hosts the International Business Magnet School.[53]

State charter schools
  • Raul Yzaguirre School for Success
  • Sentry Technology Prep Charter High School
  • IDEA Public Schools Frontier Academy and College Prep
  • IDEA Public Schools Brownsville Academy and College Prep
  • Harmony Science Academy-Brownsville (K–12)
  • Math and Science Academy-UTB
  • Athlos Leadership Academy (K-9)
  • Livingway Leadership Academy (Pre-K-5)

Private and parochial schools

Grades 9-12:

Grades 1-8:

  • Brownsville SDA School
  • Episcopal Day School
  • First Baptist School
  • Faith Christian Academy
  • Guadalupe Regional Middle School
  • Incarnate Word Academy (Brownsville, Texas) | Incarnate Word Academy
  • Kenmont Montessori School
  • St. Luke's Catholic School
  • St. Mary's Catholic School

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Brownsville operates area Catholic schools.

Public libraries

The Brownsville Public Library System

University libraries


Interstate 69E/U.S. Highway 77/83 overpass construction over McDavitt Blvd.


Several attempts were made to attract a railroad, but not until 1904 did the St. Louis, Brownsville and Mexico Railway reach the City of Brownsville. In 1910 a railroad bridge was constructed between Brownsville and Matamoros (Mexico) and regular service between the two towns began. The introduction of the rail link to Brownsville opened the area for settlement of northern farmers, who began arriving in the lower Rio Grande valley in large numbers after the turn of the century. The new settlers cleared the land of brush, built extensive irrigation systems and roads, and introduced large-scale truck farming. In 1904 H. G. Stillwell, Sr., planted the first commercial citrus orchard in the area, thus opening the way for citrus fruit culture, one of the Valley's leading industries. The expansion of farming in the area and the railroad link to the North brought new prosperity to Brownsville and spurred a host of civic improvements.[61]

Today, the Brownsville and Rio Grande International Railroad (reporting mark BRG) Brownsville and Rio Grande International Railroad is a terminal switching railroad headquartered in Brownsville, Texas. BRG operates 42 mi (68 km) of line at the Port of Brownsville, and interchanges with Union Pacific and TFM. BRG traffic includes steel, agricultural products, food products, and general commodities.[62]

Mass transit

Established in mid-Brownsville in 1978, with expanding bus service to rapidly developing North Brownsville. The Brownsville Urban System (BUS) consists of 14 buses running 11 routes covering a large portion of Brownsville.[63]


Brownsville is served by the following Interstate Highways, U.S. Routes, and Texas State Highways:

International bridges

Brownsville has three international bridges:


Brownsville has its own city-owned airport, the Houston-Intercontinental), AeroMexico (service to Monterrey, Mexico) and Envoy Air (service to Dallas-Fort Worth).[64]

Art and culture

The Brownsville area is full of well-established art galleries and museums that represent not only art of the region and Mexico but feature traveling exhibits from around the world.[65]


Each year, Brownsville hosts the Jackie Robinson World Series for nine-year-old baseball players.

In 1920 the St. Louis Cardinals held spring training in Brownsville.[66]

In 2011 & 2013 The University of Texas at Brownsville Ocelots Women's Volleyball team captured the NAIA National Championship in Sioux City, Iowa at the Tyson Events Center

Entertainment and nightlife



  • Charro Days Fiesta - usually occurs the last week of February.[69]
  • CineSol Film Festival
  • Sombrero Festival - created to enhance the spirit of Charro Days, this festival usually occurs the last week of February.[70]
  • Brownsville Latin Jazz Festival
  • Fourth of July Parade
  • Winter Break Parade
  • Annual NewGen RapFest


  • Fort Brown Memorial Gulf Course
  • Valley International Country Club[71]
  • Rancho Viejo Resort and Country Club[72]




The Brownsville area is served by numerous local television affiliates.


  • KVNS 1700 AM Fox Sports Radio
  • KURV 710 AM News Talk
  • KFRQ 94.5 FM Rock
  • KKPS La Nueva 99.5 99.5 FM Tejano
  • KNVO 101.1 FM
  • KVLY 107.9 FM MIX FM
  • KBFM Wild 104 104.1 FM Hip-Hop, R&B, Pop, Reggeton
  • KBNR 88.3 FM Radio Manantial (Spanish Christian)
  • KTEX 100.3 FM Country
  • XHMLS Exa FM 91.3 FM Latin Pop
  • XHAAA "La Caliente" 93.1 FM
  • XHNA Mega 105.9 FM Regional Mexican
  • KHKZ Kiss 106.3
  • KVMV 96.9 FM Contemporary Christian
  • KJJF/KHID 88.9 Public Radio 88 FM NPR and Performance Today
  • KJAV 104.9 Jack FM Adult Hits
  • UTB Radio[73] (formerly UTB Sting Radio) Internet Radio with diverse DJ Shows e.g., Thinking Out Loud[74] philosophy programming

Advertising Agencies

Points of interest

A picture of the Brownsville Masonic Temple Rio Grande Masonic Lodge No. 81, constructed in 1882. It was the original Cameron County Courthouse.

Local attractions include the Gladys Porter Zoo, the Brownsville Museum of Fine Art, Camille Lightner Playhouse, a historical downtown with buildings over 150 years old, the Port of Brownsville, and the Children's Museum of Brownsville. There is also easy access to South Padre Island and the Mexican city of Matamoros, Tamaulipas.

Sunrise Mall is the largest shopping mall in the city of Brownsville. Since being remodeled in 2000 the mall has become the primary mall in the Brownsville-Harlingen metroplex. Brownsville previously had another shopping mall, Amigoland Mall by Simon, though the building has since been purchased by the University of Texas at Brownsville after many of its tenants moved from Amigoland to Sunrise.


Notable people

Sister cities

See also


  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder".  
  2. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names".  
  3. ^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Brownsville city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
  4. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 (PEPANNRES): Incorporated Places in Texas". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
  5. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - United States -- Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico (GCT-PEPANNRES)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
  6. ^ "Matamoros-Brownsville". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2011. /
  7. ^ "In America's Poorest City, a Housing Breakthrough - CityLab". Retrieved 30 May 2015. 
  8. ^ Plume, Janet. "Boom time in Brownsville". Journal of Commerce. Retrieved 5 November 2011. 
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  10. ^ "About Brownsville". City of Brownsville: Brownsville Public Library. Retrieved 5 November 2011. 
  11. ^ "Governor's ED Team Receives Leadership Award" (PDF). Brownsville's Economic Development Council. Retrieved 5 November 2011. 
  12. ^ Wong, Vanesa (2011-06-27). "Texas town is the cheapest place to live in US". MSN News. Retrieved 5 November 2011. 
  13. ^ Scribner, John. "The Texas Navy". Texas Military Forces Museum. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  14. ^ Thompson, Jerry D. (2007). Cortina: defending the Mexican name in Texas. Texas A&M University Press. p. 332. 
  15. ^ Delaney, Robert W. (April 1955). "Matamoros, Port for Texas during the Civil War" 58 (4). The Southwestern Historical Quarterly. p. 487.  
  16. ^ "Tamaulipas y la guerra de Independencia: acontecimientos, actores y escenarios" (PDF). Gobierno del Estado de Tamaulipas. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  17. ^ "The Mexican Revolution: Conflict in Matamoros". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 3 November 2011. 
  18. ^ Yorke Stevenson, Sara (2004). Maximilian in Mexico: A Woman's Reminiscences of the French Intervention, 1862 to 1867. Kessinger Publishing. p. 168. 
  19. ^ The Brownsville Herald [6], accessed February 25, 2011.
  20. ^ "America's Cleanest Cities" [7], accessed February 25, 2011.
  21. ^ "Web Soil Survey". Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
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External links

  • Official website
  • Brownsville Convention and Visitors Bureau
  • Brownsville Chamber of Commerce
  • Brownsville Public Library System
  • in The Handbook of Texas OnlineBrownsville, Texas
  • National Weather Service - Brownsville
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