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Amplifier

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Amplifier

An electronic amplifier, amplifier, or (informally) amp is an electronic device that increases the power of a signal.

It does this by taking energy from a power supply and controlling the output to match the input signal shape but with a larger amplitude. In this sense, an amplifier modulates the output of the power supply to make the output signal stronger than the input signal.

The four basic types of electronic amplifiers are voltage amplifiers, current amplifiers, transconductance amplifiers, and transresistance amplifiers. A further distinction is whether the output is a linear or nonlinear representation of the input. Amplifiers can also be categorized by their physical placement in the signal chain.[1]

A practical bipolar transistor amplifier circuit

Contents

  • Figures of merit 1
  • Amplifier types 2
    • Power amplifier 2.1
      • Power amplifiers by application 2.1.1
      • Power amplifier circuits 2.1.2
    • Vacuum-tube (valve) amplifiers 2.2
    • Transistor amplifiers 2.3
    • Operational amplifiers (op-amps) 2.4
    • Fully differential amplifiers 2.5
    • Video amplifiers 2.6
    • Oscilloscope vertical amplifiers 2.7
    • Distributed amplifiers 2.8
    • Switched mode amplifiers 2.9
    • Negative resistance devices 2.10
    • Microwave amplifiers 2.11
      • Travelling wave tube amplifiers 2.11.1
      • Klystrons 2.11.2
    • Musical instrument amplifiers 2.12
  • Classification of amplifier stages and systems 3
    • Input and output variables 3.1
    • Common terminal 3.2
    • Unilateral or bilateral 3.3
    • Inverting or non-inverting 3.4
    • Function 3.5
    • Interstage coupling method 3.6
    • Frequency range 3.7
  • Power amplifier classes 4
    • Conduction angle classes 4.1
    • Class A 4.2
      • Advantages of class-A amplifiers 4.2.1
      • Disadvantage of class-A amplifiers 4.2.2
      • Single-ended and triode class-A amplifiers 4.2.3
    • Class B 4.3
    • Class AB 4.4
    • Class C 4.5
    • Class D 4.6

Figures of merit

Amplifier quality is characterized by a list of specifications that includes:

Amplifier types

Amplifiers are described according to their input and output properties.[2] They exhibit the property of gain, or multiplication factor that relates the magnitude of the output signal to the input signal. The gain may be specified as the ratio of output voltage to input voltage (voltage gain), output power to input power (power gain), or some combination of current, voltage, and power. In many cases, with input and output in the same unit, gain is unitless (though often expressed in decibels (dB)).

The four basic types of amplifiers are as follows:[1]

  1. Voltage amplifier – This is the most common type of amplifier. An input voltage is amplified to a larger output voltage. The amplifier's input impedance is high and the output impedance is low.
  2. Current amplifier – This amplifier changes an input current to a larger output current. The amplifier's input impedance is low and the output impedance is high.
  3. Transconductance amplifier – This amplifier responds to a changing input voltage by delivering a related changing output current.
  4. Transresistance amplifier – This amplifier responds to a changing input current by delivering a related changing output voltage. Other names for the device are transimpedance amplifier and current-to-voltage converter.

In practice the power gain of an amplifier will depend on the source and load impedances used as well as the inherent voltage/current gain; while a radio frequency (RF) amplifier may have its impedances optimized for power transfer, audio and instrumentation amplifiers are normally designed with their input and output impedances optimized for least loading and highest signal integrity. An amplifier that is said to have a gain of 20 dB might have a voltage gain of ten times and an available power gain of much more than 20 dB (power ratio of 100), yet actually be delivering a much lower power gain if, for example, the input is from a 600 ohm microphone and the output is connected to a 47 kilohm input socket for a power amplifier.

In most cases an amplifier will be linear; that is, the gain is constant for any normal level of input and output signal. If the gain is not linear, e.g., clipping of the signal, the output signal will be distorted. There are however cases where variable gain is useful. Exponential gain amplifiers are used in certain signal processing applications.[1]

There are many differing types of electronic amplifiers used in areas such as: radio and television transmitters and receivers, high-fidelity ("hi-fi") stereo equipment, microcomputers and other digital equipment, and guitar and other instrument amplifiers. The essential components include active devices, such as vacuum tubes or transistors. A brief introduction to the many types of electronic amplifiers follows.

Power amplifier

The term power amplifier is a relative term with respect to the amount of power delivered to the load and/or provided by the power supply circuit. In general the power amplifier is the last 'amplifier' or actual circuit in a signal chain (the output stage) and is the amplifier stage that requires attention to power efficiency. Efficiency considerations lead to the various classes of power amplifier based on the biasing of the output transistors or tubes: see power amplifier classes.

Power amplifiers by application

Power amplifier circuits

Power amplifier circuits include the following types:

Vacuum-tube (valve) amplifiers

An ECC83 tube glowing inside a preamp

According to Symons, while semiconductor amplifiers have largely displaced valve amplifiers for low power applications, valve amplifiers are much more cost effective in high power applications such as "radar, countermeasures equipment, or communications equipment" (p. 56). Many microwave amplifiers are specially designed valves, such as the klystron, gyrotron, traveling wave tube, and crossed-field amplifier, and these microwave valves provide much greater single-device power output at microwave frequencies than solid-state devices (p. 59).[4]

Valves/tube amplifiers also have niche uses in other areas, such as

Transistor amplifiers

The essential role of this active element is to magnify an input signal to yield a significantly larger output signal. The amount of magnification (the "forward gain") is determined by the external circuit design as well as the active device.

Many common active devices in transistor amplifiers are bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs).

Applications are numerous, some common examples are audio amplifiers in a home stereo or PA system, RF high power generation for semiconductor equipment, to RF and Microwave applications such as radio transmitters.

Transistor-based amplifier can be realized using various configurations: for example with a bipolar junction transistor we can realize common base, common collector or common emitter amplifier; using a MOSFET we can realize common gate, common source or common drain amplifier. Each configuration has different characteristic (gain, impedance...).

Operational amplifiers (op-amps)

An LM741 general purpose op-amp

An operational amplifier is an amplifier circuit with very high open loop gain and differential inputs that employs external feedback to control its transfer function, or gain. Though the term today commonly applies to integrated circuits, the original operational amplifier design used valves.

Fully differential amplifiers

A fully differential amplifier is a solid state integrated circuit amplifier that uses external feedback to control its transfer function or gain. It is similar to the operational amplifier, but also has differential output pins. These are usually constructed using BJTs or FETs.

Video amplifiers

These deal with video signals and have varying bandwidths depending on whether the video signal is for SDTV, EDTV, HDTV 720p or 1080i/p etc.. The specification of the bandwidth itself depends on what kind of filter is used—and at which point (-1 dB or -3 dB for example) the bandwidth is measured. Certain requirements for step response and overshoot are necessary for an acceptable TV image.

Oscilloscope vertical amplifiers

These deal with video signals that drive an oscilloscope display tube, and can have bandwidths of about 500 MHz. The specifications on step response, rise time, overshoot, and aberrations can make designing these amplifiers difficult. One of the pioneers in high bandwidth vertical amplifiers was the Tektronix company.

Distributed amplifiers

These use transmission lines to temporally split the signal and amplify each portion separately to achieve higher bandwidth than possible from a single amplifier. The outputs of each stage are combined in the output transmission line. This type of amplifier was commonly used on oscilloscopes as the final vertical amplifier. The transmission lines were often housed inside the display tube glass envelope.

Switched mode amplifiers

These nonlinear amplifiers have much higher efficiencies than linear amps, and are used where the power saving justifies the extra complexity.

Negative resistance devices

Negative resistances can be used as amplifiers, such as the tunnel diode amplifier.

Microwave amplifiers

Travelling wave tube amplifiers

Traveling wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs) are used for high power amplification at low microwave frequencies. They typically can amplify across a broad spectrum of frequencies; however, they are usually not as tunable as klystrons.

Klystrons

Klystrons are specialized linear-beam vacuum-devices, designed to provide high power, widely tunable amplification of millimetre and sub-millimetre waves. Klystrons are designed for large scale operations and despite having a narrower bandwidth than TWTAs, they have the advantage of coherently amplifying a reference signal so its output may be precisely controlled in amplitude, frequency and phase.

Musical instrument amplifiers

An audio power amplifier is usually used to amplify signals such as music or speech. Several factors are especially important in the selection of musical instrument amplifiers (such as guitar amplifiers) and other audio amplifiers (although the whole of the sound system – components such as microphones to loudspeakers – affect these parameters):

  • Frequency response – not just the frequency range but the requirement that the signal level varies so little across the audible frequency range that the human ear notices no variation. A typical specification for audio amplifiers may be 20 Hz to 20 kHz +/- 0.5 dB.
  • Power output – the power level obtainable with little distortion, to obtain a sufficiently loud sound pressure level from the loudspeakers.
  • Low distortion – all amplifiers and transducers distort to some extent. They cannot be perfectly linear, but aim to pass signals without affecting the harmonic content of the sound more than the human ear can tolerate. That tolerance of distortion, and indeed the possibility that some "warmth" or second harmonic distortion (Tube sound) improves the "musicality" of the sound, are subjects of great debate.

Classification of amplifier stages and systems

Many alternative classifications address different aspects of amplifier designs, and they all express some particular perspective relating the design parameters to the objectives of the circuit. Amplifier design is always a compromise of numerous factors, such as cost, power consumption, real-world device imperfections, and a multitude of performance specifications. Below are several different approaches to classification:

Input and output variables

The four types of dependent source—control variable on left, output variable on right

Electronic amplifiers use one variable presented as either a current and voltage. Either current or voltage can be used as input and either as output, leading to four types of amplifiers. In idealized form they are represented by each of the four types of dependent source used in linear analysis, as shown in the figure, namely:

Input Output Dependent source Amplifier type
I I Current controlled current source CCCS Current amplifier
I V Current controlled voltage source CCVS Transresistance amplifier
V I Voltage controlled current source VCCS Transconductance amplifier
V V Voltage controlled voltage source VCVS Voltage amplifier

Each type of amplifier in its ideal form has an ideal input and output resistance that is the same as that of the corresponding dependent source:[5]

Amplifier type Dependent source Input impedance Output impedance
Current CCCS 0
Transresistance CCVS 0 0
Transconductance VCCS
Voltage VCVS 0

In practice the ideal impedances are only approximated. For any particular circuit, a small-signal analysis is often used to find the impedance actually achieved. A small-signal AC test current Ix is applied to the input or output node, all external sources are set to AC zero, and the corresponding alternating voltage Vx across the test current source determines the impedance seen at that node as R = Vx / Ix.

Amplifiers designed to attach to a transmission line at input and/or output, especially RF amplifiers, do not fit into this classification approach. Rather than dealing with voltage or current individually, they ideally couple with an input and/or output impedance matched to the transmission line impedance, that is, match ratios of voltage to current. Many real RF amplifiers come close to this ideal. Although, for a given appropriate source and load impedance, RF amplifiers can be characterized as amplifying voltage or current, they fundamentally are amplifying power.[6]

Common terminal

One set of classifications for amplifiers is based on which device terminal is common to both the input and the output circuit. In the case of bipolar junction transistors, the three classes are common emitter, common base, and common collector. For field-effect transistors, the corresponding configurations are common source, common gate, and common drain; for triode vacuum devices, common cathode, common grid, and common plate. The common emitter (or common source, or common cathode etc.) is most often configured to provide amplification of a voltage applied between base and emitter, and the output signal taken between collector and emitter will be inverted, relative to the input. The common collector arrangement applies the input voltage between base and collector, and to take the output voltage between emitter and collector. This results in negative feedback, and the output voltage will tend to 'follow' the input voltage (this arrangement is also used as the input presents a high impedance and does not load the signal source, although the voltage amplification will be less than 1 (unity)); the common-collector circuit is therefore better known as an emitter follower, source follower, or cathode follower.

Unilateral or bilateral

When an amplifier has an output that exhibits no feedback to its input side, it is called 'unilateral'. The input impedance of a unilateral amplifier is independent of the load, and the output impedance is independent of the signal source impedance.

If feedback connects part of the output back to the input of the amplifier it is called a 'bilateral' amplifier. The input impedance of a bilateral amplifier is dependent upon the load, and the output impedance is dependent upon the signal source impedance.

All amplifiers are bilateral to some degree; however they may often be modeled as unilateral under operating conditions where feedback is small enough to neglect for most purposes, simplifying analysis (see the common base article for an example).

Negative feedback is often applied deliberately to tailor amplifier behavior. Some feedback, which may be positive or negative, is unavoidable and often undesirable, introduced, for example, by parasitic elements such as the inherent capacitance between input and output of a device such as a transistor and capacitative coupling due to external wiring. Excessive frequency-dependent positive feedback may cause what is intended/expected to be an amplifier to become an oscillator.

Linear unilateral and bilateral amplifiers can be represented as two-port networks.

Inverting or non-inverting

Another way to classify amplifiers is by the phase relationship of the input signal to the output signal. An 'inverting' amplifier produces an output 180 degrees out of phase with the input signal (that is, a polarity inversion or mirror image of the input as seen on an oscilloscope). A 'non-inverting' amplifier maintains the phase of the input signal waveforms. An emitter follower is a type of non-inverting amplifier, indicating that the signal at the emitter of a transistor is following (that is, matching with unity gain but perhaps an offset) the input signal. Voltage follower is also non inverting type of amplifier having unity gain.

This description can apply to a single stage of an amplifier, or to a complete amplifier system.

Function

Other amplifiers may be classified by their function or output characteristics. These functional descriptions usually apply to complete amplifier systems or sub-systems and rarely to individual stages.

  • A servo amplifier indicates an integrated feedback loop to actively control the output at some desired level. A DC servo indicates use at frequencies down to DC levels, where the rapid fluctuations of an audio or RF signal do not occur. These are often used in mechanical actuators, or devices such as DC motors that must maintain a constant speed or torque. An AC servo amp can do this for some ac motors.
  • A linear amplifier responds to different frequency components independently, and does not generate harmonic distortion or Intermodulation distortion. No amplifier can provide perfect linearity (even the most linear amplifier has some nonlinearities, since the amplifying devices—transistors or vacuum tubes—follow nonlinear power laws such as square-laws and rely on circuitry techniques to reduce those effects).
  • A nonlinear amplifier generates significant distortion and so changes the harmonic content; there are situations where this is useful. Amplifier circuits intentionally providing a non-linear transfer function include:
  • A wideband amplifier has a precise amplification factor over a wide frequency range, and is often used to boost signals for relay in communications systems. A narrowband amp amplifies a specific narrow range of frequencies, to the exclusion of other frequencies.
  • An RF amplifier amplifies signals in the radio frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and is often used to increase the sensitivity of a receiver or the output power of a transmitter.[7]
  • An audio amplifier amplifies audio frequencies. This category subdivides into small signal amplification, and power amps that are optimised to driving speakers, sometimes with multiple amps grouped together as separate or bridgeable channels to accommodate different audio reproduction requirements. Frequently used terms within audio amplifiers include:
  • Buffer amplifiers, which may include emitter followers, provide a high impedance input for a device (perhaps another amplifier, or perhaps an energy-hungry load such as lights) that would otherwise draw too much current from the source. Line drivers are a type of buffer that feeds long or interference-prone interconnect cables, possibly with differential outputs through twisted pair cables.
  • A special type of amplifier - originally used in analog computers - is widely used in measuring instruments for signal processing, and many other uses. These are called operational amplifiers or op-amps. The "operational" name is because this type of amplifier can be used in circuits that perform mathematical algorithmic functions, or "operations" on input signals to obtain specific types of output signals. Modern op-amps are usually provided as integrated circuits, rather than constructed from discrete components. A typical modern op-amp has differential inputs (one "inverting", one "non-inverting") and one output. An idealised op-amp has the following characteristics:
    • Infinite input impedance (so it does not load the circuitry at its input)
    • Zero output impedance
    • Infinite gain
    • Zero propagation delay

The performance of an op-amp with these characteristics is entirely defined by the (usually passive) components that form a negative feedback loop around it. The amplifier itself does not effect the output. All real-world op-amps fall short of the idealised specification above—but some modern components have remarkable performance and come close in some respects.

Interstage coupling method

Amplifiers are sometimes classified by the coupling method of the signal at the input, output, or between stages. Different types of these include:

Resistive-capacitive (RC) coupled amplifier, using a network of resistors and capacitors
By design these amplifiers cannot amplify DC signals as the capacitors block the DC component of the input signal. RC-coupled amplifiers were used very often in circuits with vacuum tubes or discrete transistors. In the days of the integrated circuit a few more transistors on a chip are much cheaper and smaller than a capacitor.
Inductive-capacitive (LC) coupled amplifier, using a network of inductors and capacitors
This kind of amplifier is most often used in selective radio-frequency circuits.
Transformer coupled amplifier, using a transformer to match impedances or to decouple parts of the circuits
Quite often LC-coupled and transformer-coupled amplifiers cannot be distinguished as a transformer is some kind of inductor.
Direct coupled amplifier, using no impedance and bias matching components
This class of amplifier was very uncommon in the vacuum tube days when the anode (output) voltage was at greater than several hundred volts and the grid (input) voltage at a few volts minus. So they were only used if the gain was specified down to DC (e.g., in an oscilloscope). In the context of modern electronics developers are encouraged to use directly coupled amplifiers whenever possible.

Frequency range

Depending on the frequency range and other properties amplifiers are designed according to different principles.

  • Frequency ranges down to DC are only used when this property is needed. DC amplification leads to specific complications that are avoided if possible; DC-blocking capacitors are added to remove DC and sub-sonic frequencies from audio amplifiers.
  • Depending on the frequency range specified different design principles must be used. Up to the MHz range only "discrete" properties need be considered; e.g., a terminal has an input impedance.
  • As soon as any connection within the circuit gets longer than perhaps 1% of the wavelength of the highest specified frequency (e.g., at 100 MHz the wavelength is 3 m, so the critical connection length is approx. 3 cm) design properties radically change. For example, a specified length and width of a PCB trace can be used as a selective or impedance-matching entity.
  • Above a few hundred MHz, it gets difficult to use discrete elements, especially inductors. In most cases, PCB traces of very closely defined shapes are used instead.

The frequency range handled by an amplifier might be specified in terms of bandwidth (normally implying a response that is 3 dB down when the frequency reaches the specified bandwidth), or by specifying a frequency response that is within a certain number of decibels between a lower and an upper frequency (e.g. "20 Hz to 20 kHz plus or minus 1 dB").

Power amplifier classes

Power amplifier circuits (output stages) are classified as A, B, AB and C for analog designs, and class D and E for switching designs based on the proportion of each input cycle (conduction angle), during which an amplifying device is passing current. The image of the conduction angle is derived from amplifying a sinusoidal signal. If the device is always on, the conducting angle is 360°. If it is on for only half of each cycle, the angle is 180°. The angle of flow is closely related to the amplifier power efficiency. The various classes are introduced below, followed by a more detailed discussion under their individual headings further down.

In the illustrations below, a bipolar junction transistor is shown as the amplifying device. However the same attributes are found with MOSFETs or vacuum tubes.

Conduction angle classes

Class A
100% of the input signal is used (conduction angle Θ = 360°). The active element remains conducting[8] all of the time.
Class B
50% of the input signal is used (Θ = 180°); the active element carries current half of each cycle, and is turned off for the other half.
Class AB
Class AB is intermediate between class A and B, the two active elements conduct more than half of the time
Class C
Less than 50% of the input signal is used (conduction angle Θ < 180°).

A "Class D" amplifier uses some form of pulse-width modulation to control the output devices; the conduction angle of each device is no longer related directly to the input signal but instead varies in pulse width. These are sometimes called "digital" amplifiers because the output device is switched fully on or off, and not carrying current proportional to the signal amplitude.

Additional classes
There are several other amplifier classes, although they are mainly variations of the previous classes. For example, class-G and class-H amplifiers are marked by variation of the supply rails (in discrete steps or in a continuous fashion, respectively) following the input signal. Wasted heat on the output devices can be reduced as excess voltage is kept to a minimum. The amplifier that is fed with these rails itself can be of any class. These kinds of amplifiers are more complex, and are mainly used for specialized applications, such as very high-power units. Also, class-E and class-F amplifiers are commonly described in literature for radio-frequency applications where efficiency of the traditional classes is important, yet several aspects deviate substantially from their ideal values. These classes use harmonic tuning of their output networks to achieve higher efficiency and can be considered a subset of class C due to their conduction-angle characteristics.

Class A

Class-A amplifier

Amplifying devices operating in class A conduct over the entire range of the input cycle. A class-A amplifier is distinguished by the output stage devices being biased for class A operation. Subclass A2 is sometimes used to refer to vacuum-tube class-A stages where the grid is allowed to be driven slightly positive on signal peaks, resulting in slightly more power than normal class A (A1; where the grid is always negative[9]), but this incurs a higher distortion level.

Advantages of class-A amplifiers

  • Class-A designs are simpler than other classes; for example class -AB and -B designs require two connected devices in the circuit (push–pull output), each to handle one half of the waveform; class A can use a single device (single-ended).
  • The amplifying element is biased so the device is always conducting, the quiescent (small-signal) collector current (for transistors; drain current for FETs or anode/plate current for vacuum tubes) is close to the most linear portion of its transconductance curve.
  • Because the device is never 'off' there is no "turn on" time, no problems with charge storage, and generally better high frequency performance and feedback loop stability (and usually fewer high-order harmonics).
  • The point at which the device comes closest to being 'off' is not at 'zero signal', so the problems of crossover distortion associated with class-AB and -B designs is avoided.
  • Best for low signal levels of radio receivers due to low distortion.

Disadvantage of class-A amplifiers

  • Class-A amplifiers are inefficient. A theoretical efficiency of 50% is obtainable with transformer output coupling and only 25% with capacitive coupling, unless deliberate use of nonlinearities is made (such as in square-law output stages). In a power amplifier, this not only wastes power and limits operation with batteries, but increases operating costs and requires higher-rated output devices. Inefficiency comes from the standing current that must be roughly half the maximum output current, and a large part of the power supply voltage is present across the output device at low signal levels. If high output power is needed from a class-A circuit, the power supply and accompanying heat becomes significant. For every watt delivered to the load, the amplifier itself, at best, uses an extra watt. For high power amplifiers this means very large and expensive power supplies and heat sinks.

Class-A power amplifier designs have largely been superseded by more efficient designs, though they remain popular with some hobbyists, mostly for their simplicity. There is a market for expensive high fidelity class-A amps considered a "cult item" amongst audiophiles[10] mainly for their absence of crossover distortion and reduced odd-harmonic and high-order harmonic distortion.

Single-ended and triode class-A amplifiers

Some hobbyists who prefer class-A amplifiers also prefer the use of thermionic valve (or "tube") designs instead of transistors, for several reasons:

  • Single-ended output stages have an asymmetrical transfer function, meaning that even order harmonics in the created distortion tend not to be canceled (as they are in push–pull output stages); for tubes, or FETs, most of the distortion is second-order harmonics, from the square law transfer characteristic, which to some produces a "warmer" and more pleasant sound.[11][12]
  • For those who prefer low distortion figures, the use of tubes with class A (generating little odd-harmonic distortion, as mentioned above) together with symmetrical circuits (such as push–pull output stages, or balanced low-level stages) results in the cancellation of most of the even distortion harmonics, hence the removal of most of the distortion.
  • Historically, valve amplifiers often used a class-A power amplifier simply because valves are large and expensive; many class-A designs use only a single device.

Transistors are much cheaper, and so more elaborate designs that give greater efficiency but use more parts are still cost-effective. A classic application for a pair of class-A devices is the long-tailed pair, which is exceptionally linear, and forms the basis of many more complex circuits, including many audio amplifiers and almost all op-amps.

Class-A amplifiers are often used in output stages of high quality op-amps (although the accuracy of the bias in low cost op-amps such as the 741 may result in class A or class AB or class B, varying from device to device or with temperature). They are sometimes used as medium-power, low-efficiency, and high-cost audio power amplifiers. The power consumption is unrelated to the output power. At idle (no input), the power consumption is essentially the same as at high output volume. The result is low efficiency and high heat dissipation.

Class B

Class-B amplifier
Class-B push–pull amplifier

Class-B amplifiers only amplify half of the input wave cycle, thus creating a large amount of distortion, but their efficiency is greatly improved and is much better than class A. Class-B amplifiers are also favoured in battery-operated devices, such as transistor radios. Class B has a maximum theoretical efficiency of π/4. (≈ 78.5%) This is because the amplifying element is switched off altogether half of the time, and so cannot dissipate power. A single class-B element is rarely found in practice, though it has been used for driving the loudspeaker in the early IBM Personal Computers with beeps, and it can be used in RF power amplifier where the distortion levels are less important. However, class C is more commonly used for this.

A practical circuit using class-B elements is the push–pull stage, such as the very simplified complementary pair arrangement shown below. Here, complementary or quasi-complementary devices are each used for amplifying the opposite halves of the input signal, which is then recombined at the output. This arrangement gives excellent efficiency, but can suffer from the drawback that there is a small mismatch in the cross-over region – at the "joins" between the two halves of the signal, as one output device has to take over supplying power exactly as the other finishes. This is called crossover distortion. An improvement is to bias the devices so they are not completely off when they're not in use. This approach is called class AB operation.

Class AB

Class AB is widely considered a good compromise for amplifiers, since much of the time the music signal is quiet enough that the signal stays in the "class A" region, where it is amplified with good fidelity, and by definition if passing out of this region, is large enough that the distortion products typical of class B are relatively small. The crossover distortion can be reduced further by using negative feedback.

In class-AB operation, each device operates the same way as in class B over half the waveform, but also conducts a small amount on the other half. As a result, the region where both devices simultaneously are nearly off (the "dead zone") is reduced. The result is that when the waveforms from the two devices are combined, the crossover is greatly minimised or eliminated altogether. The exact choice of quiescent current (the standing current through both devices when there is no signal) makes a large difference to the level of distortion (and to the risk of thermal runaway, that may damage the devices); often the bias voltage applied to set this quiescent current has to be adjusted with the temperature of the output transistors (for example in the circuit at the beginning of the article the diodes would be mounted physically close to the output transistors, and chosen to have a matched temperature coefficient). Another approach (often used as well as thermally tracking bias voltages) is to include small value resistors in series with the emitters.

Class AB sacrifices some efficiency over class B in favor of linearity, thus is less efficient (below 78.5% for full-amplitude sinewaves in transistor amplifiers, typically; much less is common in class-AB vacuum-tube amplifiers). It is typically much more efficient than class A.

Sometimes a numeral is added for vacuum-tube stages. If the grid voltage is always negative with respect to the cathode the class is AB1. If the grid is allowed to go slightly positive (hence drawing grid current, adding more distortion, but giving slightly higher output power) on signal peaks the class is AB2.

Class C

Class-C amplifier

Class-C amplifiers conduct less than 50% of the input signal and the distortion at the output is high, but high efficiencies (up to 90%) are possible. The usual application for class-C amplifiers is in RF transmitters operating at a single fixed carrier frequency, where the distortion is controlled by a tuned load on the amplifier. The input signal is used to switch the active device causing pulses of current to flow through a tuned circuit forming part of the load.

The class-C amplifier has two modes of operation: tuned and untuned.[13] The diagram shows a waveform from a simple class-C circuit without the tuned load. This is called untuned operation, and the analysis of the waveforms shows the massive distortion that appears in the signal. When the proper load (e.g., an inductive-capacitive filter plus a load resistor) is used, two things happen. The first is that the output's bias level is clamped with the average output voltage equal to the supply voltage. This is why tuned operation is sometimes called a clamper. This allows the waveform to be restored to its proper shape despite the amplifier having only a one-polarity supply. This is directly related to the second phenomenon: the waveform on the center frequency becomes less distorted. The residual distortion is dependent upon the bandwidth of the tuned load, with the center frequency seeing very little distortion, but greater attenuation the farther from the tuned frequency that the signal gets.

The tuned circuit resonates at one frequency, the fixed carrier frequency, and so the unwanted frequencies are suppressed, and the wanted full signal (sine wave) is extracted by the tuned load. The signal bandwidth of the amplifier is limited by the Q-factor of the tuned circuit but this is not a serious limitation. Any residual harmonics can be removed using a further filter.

In practical class-C amplifiers a tuned load is invariably used. In one common arrangement the resistor shown in the circuit above is replaced with a parallel-tuned circuit consisting of an inductor and capacitor in parallel, whose components are chosen to resonate the frequency of the input signal. Power can be coupled to a load by transformer action with a secondary coil wound on the inductor. The average voltage at the drain is then equal to the supply voltage, and the signal voltage appearing across the tuned circuit varies from near zero to near twice the supply voltage during the rf cycle. The input circuit is biased so that the active element (e.g. transistor) conducts for only a fraction of the RF cycle, usually one third (120 degrees) or less.[14]

The active element conducts only while the drain voltage is passing through its minimum. By this means, power dissipation in the active device is minimised, and efficiency increased. Ideally, the active element would pass only an instantaneous current pulse while the voltage across it is zero: it then dissipates no power and 100% efficiency is achieved. However practical devices have a limit to the peak current they can pass, and the pulse must therefore be widened, to around 120 degrees, to obtain a reasonable amount of power, and the efficiency is then 60-70%.[14]

Class D

Block diagram of a basic switching or PWM (class-D) amplifier.
Boss Audio class-D mono amplifier with a low pass filter for powering subwoofers

In the class-D amplifier the active devices (transistors) function as electronic switches instead of linear gain devices; they are either on or off. The analog signal is converted to a stream of pulses that represents the signal by pulse width modulation, pulse density modulation, delta-sigma modulation or a related modulation technique before being applied to the amplifier. The time average power value of the pulses is directly proportional to the analog signal, so after amplification the signal can be converted back to an analog signal by a passive

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