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Action off Charles Island

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Title: Action off Charles Island  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Capture of HMS Dominica, Action off James Island, Battle of La Guaira (1812), Battle of Hampden, Sinking of HMS Reindeer
Collection: Conflicts in 1813, Galápagos Islands, Naval Battles of the War of 1812, Pacific Ocean
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Action off Charles Island

Action off Charles Island
Part of War of 1812

USS Essex off Galapagos.
Date July 14, 1813
Location off Banks' Bay, Charles Island, Galapagos Archipelago, Pacific Ocean
Result United States victory
 United States United Kingdom
Commanders and leaders
David Porter William Stavers
1 frigate
2 sloops-of-war
3 armed whaling brigs
Casualties and losses
1 sloop-of-war damaged 89 men captured, of which 48 were released on parole after the battle
3 brigs captured

The Action off Charles Island was a naval battle fought during the War of 1812 in the summer of 1813 off Charles Island in the Galapagos. An American squadron of three vessels attacked three British armed whalers, and captured them. The engagement was notable for being one of the few to occur in the Pacific Ocean during the war and involved United States Marine Lieutenant John M. Gamble, the first marine to command an American warship.[1]


  • Background 1
  • Action 2
  • Aftermath 3
  • See also 4
  • Footnotes 5


In the war between the United Kingdom and the United States, American Valparaiso to be sold while he and the remaining vessels patrolled for British whalers between Tumbes, Peru and the Galapagos. [2][3][4]

Because Porter had entered the Pacific with no more than 350 American servicemen under his command, when he took prizes he could only place small chaplain, and the Greenwich held only fourteen men under the command of Lieutenant Gamble.


John M. Gamble

There is some confusion as to the date of the battle, in later memoirs, Lieutenant Gamble recalled that it was fought on 12 or 13 July while Captain Porter's memoir, and letters from Porter to Gamble, state that it occurred on 14 July. Either way at about 11:00 am the Americans were sailing west from Tumbes, Peru, off Banks Bay (Bahia de Bancos) in the Galapagos when they sighted three sets of sails on the horizon. Commodore Porter signaled his ships to prepare for action and a chase began. At the time, the majority of British ships cruising in the South Pacific were whalers sailing under letters of marque, legally permitting hem to act as privateers should the opportunity arise.[Note 1]

The first British vessel Porter captured was the Seringapatam.[2]

Seringapatam was originally built of teak at Bombay as a small man-of-war of 357 tons burthen for Tippoo Sahib of Mysore. However, he died at the Battle of Seringapatam and the British merchants who bought her used her as a whaler. Seringapatam had made several whaling and sealing voyages to the South Atlantic and this area since 1800. Her commander, Captain William Stavers, had a forty-one man crew and she was armed with fourteen 9-pounder guns. On this voyage she had captured one American whaler on the way to the whaling grounds.

When escape seemed unlikely, Seringapatam changed course and appeared to be making an attack run on the Greenwich but the latter came to a halt and waited for the Georgiana to come up and provide assistance. At this point, four men were transferred from the Georgiana to the Greenwich so Captain Stavers chose to break off the attack and continue fleeing. Lieutenant Gamble closed the distance between the two ships and he first demanded that the British surrender. But when the Americans came within pistol range, Seringapatam raise her colors and fired a powerful broadside.[2]

Greenwich immediately returned fire with small arms and cannon and for several moments the two vessels exchanged fire. American fire proved to be more accurate and after taking heavy damage, the British struck their colors and Greenwich ceased her firing. Just as Lieutenant Gamble was preparing to board the enemy, Seringapatam attempted another escape. Gamble ordered his men to resume shooting at the sails of the British vessel and eventually brought her to a halt. Meanwhile, Essex had finished pursuing the small 8-gun New Zealander and captured her without difficulty. Captain Porter then assisted in chasing down Seringapatam. [2]


Captain Porter's fleet off Nuku Hiva in October of 1813.

American sources make no mention of casualties on either side though the Greenwich sustained some damage and the Seringapatam was crippled. Porter took 89 prisoners in all and the American ships were already filled with captives, the Americans disarmed the Charlton, loaded her with 48 of the prisoners, and sent her to Rio de Janeiro as a cartel with the prisoners under parole with orders to surrender to the first American authority they encountered. Lloyd's List reported that Essex had captured Seringapatam, Stavers, master, New Zealander, Donneman, master, and Charlton, Halcrow, master. Porter then had put the captured crews aboard Charlton.[5]

Captain Stavers, when asked to surrender his privateer's commission, revealed that though he had applied for a letter of marque, he had not yet received one, but that it was probably waiting for him in Lima.[Note 2] Captain Porter announced that Stavers would be taken to the United States and be tried as a pirate, and ordered him and his crew to be put in irons. They were given more freedom after some liberated American whalers told Porter that the British had treated them well during their time as prisoners aboard Seringapatam.[2]

The American press declared Seringapatm to have been a formidable threat to American commerce in the Pacific, making Lieutenant Gamble famous, with the consequence that he received many letters of congratulations from naval officers. Seringapatam was found to have carried up to 30,000 dollars worth of armaments and provisions. Gamble was promoted to captain and died in 1836 as a lieutenant colonel. However, despite a petition to the U.S. Congress, he never received any prize money for the capture or his subsequent service and suffering.[7] Following the engagement, Captain Porter made for Nuku Hiva in the Marquesas where he built America's first base in the Pacific and repaired his ships. He then sailed off, leaving Greenwich, Seringapatam, and another prize, the Sir Andrew Hammond, behind. It was after his departuer that the Seringnapatam Mutiny occurred .[8] The mutineers and British prisoners-of-war recaptured Seringapatam and sailed her to Australia, from where she was returned to her owners. Gamble burned Greenwich before leaving Nuka Hiva in Sir Andrew Hammond.

See also


  1. ^ All the vessels that Porter captured had crews whose size was more consistent with their being letters of marque than privateers. Vessels intending to engage in privateering had large crews, larger even than those of similarly-sized naval vessels, in order to be able to put prize crews on board their captures, while continuing to hunt for more prey. Porter himself suffered from having too few men to man adequately all his prizes.
  2. ^ One had been issued on 12 December 1812.[6]
  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d e
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ Lloyd's List, 11 January 1814 [1] - accessed 11 November 2013.
  6. ^ Men of Marque - Seringaptam.[2] Accessed 5 March 2012.
  7. ^
  8. ^
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