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Tripolitania Vilayet

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Title: Tripolitania Vilayet  
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Subject: Cyrenaica, Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire, Tripolitania, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Subdivisions of Libya, Ottoman Air Force, List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire
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Tripolitania Vilayet

ولايت طرابلس غرب
Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârp
Eyalet, Vilayet of Ottoman Empire



Tripolitania Eyalet in 1609
Capital Tripoli
 -  Siege of Tripoli 15 August 1551
 -  Italo-Turkish War 18 October 1911
Today part of Libya
Part of a series on the
History of Libya
Ancient history pre-146 BC
Roman era to 640 AD
Arab rule 640–1551
Ottoman rule 1551–1911
Italian colonization 1911–1934
Italian Libya 1934–1943
Allied occupation 1943–1951
Kingdom of Libya 1951–1969
Gaddafi rule 1969–2011
Libyan civil war 2011
National Transitional Council 2011–2012
General National Congress 2012–
Libya portal

The coastal region of what is today Libya was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, from 1864 as the Vilayet of Tripolitania (Ottoman Turkish: ولايت طرابلس غرب Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârp). It was also known as the Kingdom of Tripoli, even though it was not technically a kingdom, but an Ottoman province ruled by pashas (governors), as the Karamanli dynasty from 1711 to 1835 ruled the province as de facto hereditary monarchs.

Besides the core territory of Tripolitania, Barca was also considered part of the kingdom of Tripoli because it was de facto ruled by the pasha of Tripoli.[1]


Ottoman conquest

By the beginning of the 16th century the Libyan coast had minimal central authority and its harbours were havens for unchecked bands of pirates. Spain occupied Tripoli in 1510, but the Spaniards were more concerned with controlling the port than with the inconveniences of administering a colony. In 1530 the city, along with Malta and Gozo, were ceded by Charles I of Spain to the Knights of St John as compensation for their recent expulsion from Rhodes at the hands of the Turks. Christian rule lasted then until 1551, when Tripoli was besieged and conquered by famed Ottoman admirals Sinan Pasha and Turgut Reis. Declared Bey and later Pasha of Tripoli, Turgut Reis submitted the tribes of the interior and several cities like Misrata, Zuwara, Gharyan, and Gafsa in the next decade. These efforts contributed to cement the foundations of a statal structure in what is today Libya, but control from Constantinople remained loose at best, much like in the rest of the Barbary Coast.

Under the Ottomans, the Maghreb was divided into three provinces, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. After 1565, administrative authority in Tripoli was vested in a pasha directly appointed by the Sultan in Constantinople. The sultan provided the pasha with a corps of janissaries, which was in turn divided into a number of companies under the command of a junior officer or bey. The janissaries quickly became the dominant force in Ottoman Libya. As a self-governing military guild answerable only to their own laws and protected by a divan (a council of senior officers who advised the pasha), the janissaries soon reduced the pasha to a largely ceremonial role.

Karamanli dynasty and the Barbary Wars

In 1711, Ahmed Karamanli, an Ottoman cavalry officer and son of a Turkish officer and Libyan woman, seized power and founded the Karamanli dynasty, which would last 124 years. The Libyan civil war of 1791–1795 occurred in those years.

In May 1801 Pasha Yusuf Karamanli demanded from the United States an increase in the tribute ($83,000) which that government had paid since 1796 for the protection of their commerce from piracy. The demand was refused, an American naval force blockaded Tripoli, and a desultory war dragged on until 3 June 1805.

The Second Barbary War (1815, also known as the Algerian War) was the second of two wars fought between the United States and the Ottoman Empire's North African regencies of Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis, known collectively as the Barbary States.

Reassertion of Ottoman authority

In 1835 the government of Sultan Mahmud II took advantage of local disturbances to reassert their direct authority and held it until the final collapse of the Ottoman Empire. As decentralized Ottoman power had resulted in the virtual independence of Egypt as well as Tripoli, the coast and desert lying between them relapsed to anarchy, even after direct Ottoman control was resumed in Tripoli. The indigenous Senussi Movement, led by Islamic cleric Sayyid Mohammed Ali as-Senussi, called on the countryside to resist Ottoman rule. The Grand Senussi established his headquarters in the oasis town of Jaghbub while his ikhwan (brothers) set up zawiyas (religious colleges or monasteries) across North Africa and brought some stability to regions not known for their submission to central authority. In line with the expressed instruction of the Grand Sanusi, these gains were made largely without any coercion.

It was one of the first Ottoman provinces to become a vilayet after an administrative reform in 1865, and by 1867 it had been reformed into the Tripolitania Vilayet.[2]

The highpoint of the Sanusi influence came in the 1880s under the Grand Senussi's son, Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi, who was a skilled administrator and a charismatic orator. With 146 lodges spanning the entire Sahara, he moved the Senussi capital to Kufra. Harsh Ottoman rule only fuelled the appeal of the Senussi Movement's call to repel foreign occupation. Remarkably, Mohammed al-Mahdi succeeded where so many had failed before him, securing the enduring loyalty of the Amazigh tribes of Cyrenaica. Over a 75‑year period the Ottoman Turks provided 33 governors and Libya remained part of the empire—although at times virtually autonomous—until Italy invaded in 1911, as the Ottoman Empire was collapsing.

Italo-Turkish War

Main article: Italo-Turkish War

The Italo-Turkish War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Italy from September 29, 1911 to October 18, 1912.

As a result of this conflict, the Ottoman Turks ceded the provinces of Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica to Italy. These provinces together formed what became known as Libya.

Administrative divisions

Sanjaks of the Eyalet in the mid‑19th century:[3]
  1. Sanjak of Benghazi; became an independent sanjak in 1863, then became a province for a brief period, but was made an independent sanjak once again in 1888.[4]
  2. Sanjak of Tarablusi Garb
  3. Sanjak of Khoms
  4. Sanjak of Djebel
  5. Sanjak of Gharbi
  6. Sanjak of Fezzan
Sanjaks of the Vilayet:[5]
  1. Sanjak of Trablus Garb
  2. Sanjak of Khoms
  3. Sanjak of Celebi-i-Garbi
  4. Sanjak of Fizan
  5. Sanjak of Benghazi

See also


External links

 Template:Subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire

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