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Title: Join-calculus  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of programming languages by type, Join, Concurrent computing, JoCaml
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


The join-calculus is a process calculus developed at INRIA. The join-calculus was developed to provide a formal basis for the design of distributed programming languages, and therefore intentionally avoids communications constructs found in other process calculi, such as rendezvous communications, which are difficult to implement in a distributed setting.[1] Despite this limitation, the join-calculus is as expressive as the full \pi-calculus. Encodings of the \pi-calculus in the join-calculus, and vice-versa, have been demonstrated.[2]

The join-calculus is a member of the \pi-calculus family of process calculi, and can be considered, at its core, an asynchronous \pi-calculus with several strong restrictions:[3]

  • Scope restriction, reception, and replicated reception are syntactically merged into a single construct, the definition;
  • Communication occurs only on defined names;
  • For every defined name there is exactly one replicated reception.

However, as a language for programming, the join-calculus offers at least one convenience over the \pi-calculus — namely the use of multi-way join patterns, the ability to match against messages from multiple channels simultaneously.

Languages based on the join-calculus

The join-calculus programming language is based on the join-calculus process calculus. It is implemented as an interpreter written in OCaml, and supports statically typed distributed programming, transparent remote communication, agent-based mobility, and failure-detection.[4]

JoCaml is a version of OCaml extended with join-calculus primitives.

Polyphonic C# and its successor extend C#.

MC# and Parallel C# extend Polyphonic C#.

Join Java extends Java.

A Concurrent Basic proposal that uses Join-calculus

Embeddings in other programming languages

These implementations do not change the underlying programming language but introduce join calculus operations through a custom library.

The Boost.Join library is an implementation in C++ within the Boost framework.

The ScalaJoins library is in Scala.

Joinads - various implementations of join calculus in F#.

CocoaJoin is an experimental implementation in Objective-C for iOS and Mac OS X.


  1. ^ Cedric Fournet, Georges Gonthier (1995). "The reflexive CHAM and the join-calculus". , pg. 1
  2. ^ Cedric Fournet, Georges Gonthier (1995). "The reflexive CHAM and the join-calculus". , pg. 2
  3. ^ Cedric Fournet, Georges Gonthier (1995). "The reflexive CHAM and the join-calculus". , pg. 19
  4. ^ Cedric Fournet, Georges Gonthier (2000). "The Join Calculus: A Language for Distributed Mobile Programming". 

External links

  • INRIA, Join Calculus homepage

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