Guanabana

For the herbaceous plant, see Oxalis pes-caprae.


Soursop, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 276 kJ (66 kcal)
Carbohydrates 16.84 g
- Sugars 13.54 g
- Dietary fiber 3.3 g
Fat 0.3 g
Protein 1 g
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.07 mg (6%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.05 mg (4%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.9 mg (6%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.253 mg (5%)
Vitamin B6 0.059 mg (5%)
Folate (vit. B9) 14 μg (4%)
Choline 7.6 mg (2%)
Vitamin C 20.6 mg (25%)
Calcium 14 mg (1%)
Iron 0.6 mg (5%)
Magnesium 21 mg (6%)
Phosphorus 27 mg (4%)
Potassium 278 mg (6%)
Sodium 14 mg (1%)
Zinc 0.1 mg (1%)
USDA Nutrient Database

Soursop is the fruit of Annona muricata, a broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree native to Mexico, Cuba, Central America, the Caribbean, and northern South America, primarily Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Soursop is also produced in some parts of Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific. It is in the same genus as the chirimoya and the same family as the pawpaw.

The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm winters; temperatures below 5 °C (41 °F) will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3 °C (37 °F) can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for concentrate.

Other common names include: "Coração de Boi" Mozambique, Evo (Ewe, Volta Region, Ghana),"Ekitafeeli", Uganda, "Stafeli" Swahili, Aluguntugui (Ga, Greater Accra Region, Ghana) guanábana (Spanish), graviola (Brazilian Portuguese, pronounced: [ɡɾɐviˈɔlɐ]), anona (European Portuguese), corossol (French),කටු අනෝදා (Sinhalese), sorsaka (Papiamento), adunu (Acholi), Brazilian pawpaw, guyabano, guanavana, toge-banreisi, durian benggala, durian belanda, nangka blanda, ทุเรียนเทศ [turi:jen te:k] (Thai), sirsak, zuurzak (Dutch), tomoko (Kiswahili) and nangka londa.[1] In Malayalam, it is called മുള്ളാത്ത (mullaatha), literally thorny custard apple. The other lesser-known Indian names are shul-ram-fal and Lakshmana Phala. and in Harar (Ethiopia) in Harari language known for centuries as Amba Shoukh (Thorny Mango or Thorny Fruit).

The flavour has been described as a combination of strawberry and pineapple, with sour citrus flavour notes contrasting with an underlying creamy flavour reminiscent of coconut or banana.

Cultivation and uses

The plant is grown as a commercial herb crop for its 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in) long, prickly, green fruit, which can have a mass of up to 15 lb (6.8 kg),[2] making it probably the second biggest annona after the junglesop.

Away from its native area, some limited production occurs as far north as southern Florida within USDA Zone 10; however, these are mostly garden plantings for local consumption. It is also grown in parts of Southeast Asia and abundant on the Island of Mauritius. The soursop will reportedly fruit as a container specimen, even in temperate climates, if protected from cool temperatures.

The flesh of the fruit consists of an edible, white pulp, some fiber, and a core of indigestible, black seeds. The species is the only member of its genus suitable for processing and preservation. The sweet pulp is used to make juice, as well as candies, sorbets, and ice cream flavorings.

In Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Harar (Ethiopia), it is a common fruit, often used for dessert as the only ingredient, or as an agua fresca beverage; in Colombia and Venezuela, it is a fruit for juices, mixed with milk. Ice cream and fruit bars made of soursop are also very popular. The seeds are normally left in the preparation, and removed while consuming, unless a blender is used for processing.

In Indonesia, dodol sirsak, a sweetmeat, is made by boiling soursop pulp in water and adding sugar until the mixture hardens. Soursop is also a common ingredient for making fresh fruit juices that are sold by street food vendors. In the Philippines, it is called guyabano, derived from the Spanish guanabana, and is eaten ripe, or used to make juices, smoothies, or ice cream. Sometimes, they use the leaf in tenderizing meat. In Vietnam, this fruit is called mãng cầu Xiêm in the south, or mãng cầu in the north, and is used to make smoothies, or eaten as is. In Cambodia, this fruit is called tearb barung, literally "western custard-apple fruit." In Malaysia, it is known in Malay as durian belanda and in East Malaysia, specifically among the Dusun people of Sabah, it is locally known as lampun. Popularly, it is eaten raw when it ripens, or used as one of the ingredients in Ais Kacang or Ais Batu Campur. Usually the fruits are taken from the tree when they mature and left to ripen in a dark corner, whereby they will be eaten when they are fully ripe. It has a white flower with a very pleasing scent, especially in the morning. While for people in Brunei Darussalam this fruit is popularly known as "Durian Salat", widely available and easily planted.It was most likely brought from Mexico to the Philippines by way of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade.

In the United States, soursop has been used by the New Belgium Brewing Company in their Rolle Bolle summer seasonal beer.[3]

Properties

The fruit contains significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2.[4]

Laboratory and field research suggests that soursop may have potential for various applications.[5]

The compound annonacin, which is contained in the seeds of soursop, is a neurotoxin associated with neurodegenerative disease,[6] and research has suggested a connection between consumption of soursop and atypical forms of Parkinson's disease due to high concentrations of annonacin.[7] In 2010 the Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments called for further study on the risks of annonacin exposure for human health.[8]

Cancer treatment

According to Cancer Research UK, "Many sites on the internet advertise and promote graviola capsules as a cancer cure, but none of them are supported by any reputable scientific cancer organisations" and "there is no evidence to show that graviola works as a cure for cancer" and consequently they do not support its use as a treatment for cancer.[9]

In 2008 a court case relating to the sale in the UK of Triamazon, a soursop product, resulted in the criminal conviction of a man under the terms of the UK Cancer Act for offering to treat people for cancer. A spokesman for the council that instigated the action stated, "it is as important now as it ever was that people are protected from those peddling unproven products with spurious claims as to their effects."[10]

The Federal Trade Commission in the United States determined that there was "no credible scientific evidence" that the extract of soursop sold by Bioque Technologies "can prevent, cure, or treat cancer of any kind."[11]

See also

References

External links

  • (Portuguese) Correia, M. P., (1984) Dicionário das plantas úteis do Brasil
  • ISBN 0-9610184-1-0)
  • Sorting Annona names
  • Soursop List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's)
  • PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ANNONA MURICATA: A REVIEWes:Guanabana

it:Annona muricata pt:Graviola

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