World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Proto-Indo-European particles

Article Id: WHEBN0019741695
Reproduction Date:

Title: Proto-Indo-European particles  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European accent, Indo-European studies, Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses, Aryan
Collection: Parts of Speech, Proto-Indo-European Language
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Proto-Indo-European particles

The particles of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages. The following article lists and discusses their hypothesized forms.

Contents

  • Adverbs 1
    • Adverbs used as adpositions 1.1
    • Negators 1.2
    • Adverbs derived from adjectives 1.3
  • Conjunctions 2
  • Interjections 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5

Adverbs

Adverbs used as adpositions

Many particles could be used both as adverbs and postpositions. This is similar to modern languages; compare English He is above in the attic (adverb) and The bird is above the house (preposition). The postpositions became prepositions in the daughter languages except Anatolian, Germanic, Indo-Iranian and Sabellic; Latin and Greek preserve postpositions vestigially.[1]

Reflexes, or descendants of the PIE reconstructed forms in its daughter languages, include the following.

Particle Meaning Reflexes
*h₂epo / h₂po / apo from Ved. ápa "away, forth", Gk. apó, Lat. ab "from", Alb. pa "without", Eng. of, off[2]
*h₂ed to, by, at Lat. ad, Osc. adpúd, Umb. ař, Goth. at, ON at, Eng. æt/at, Gm. az/--, Ir. ad/do, Welsh add-, at, Gaul. ad, Phryg. addaket, XMK addai[3]
*h₂eti from, back, again OCS OCS отъ Ir. aith-, Welsh ad- "re-", Toch. A atas, Toch. B ate "away", Gk. atar "however"
*h₂en / *h₂enh₃ / *h₂neh₃ on, upon Av. ana, Gk. ano, Lat. in (in some cases), ON á, Goth. ana, Eng. an/on, Gm. ?/an, Lith. ant
*h₂enti against, at the end, in front of, before Gk. anti, Lat. ante, Hitt. hantezzi "first"
*h₂eu off, away, too much, very Ved. ava, Lith. nuo, Eng. of, off[3]
*h₂n̥-bʰi / *h₂m̥-bʰi around[4] (→ both) Ved. abhi, Av. aiwito, aibi, Pers. abiy/?, Gk. amphi, ON um, Eng. bi/by; ymbi/umbe (obsolete), Gm. umbi/um; ?/bei, Gaul. ambi, Ir. imb/um, Welsh am, Toch. āmpi/?, Alb. mbi, Lith. abu, OCS oba, Russ. ob "about", oba "both"[3]
*bʰeǵʰ without OCS без, OPruss. bhe, Ved. bahis "from outwards"[3]
*de, *do to Gk. -de, Eng. to, Gm. zu, Lith. da-, OCS do, PER tâ, Welsh i, Ir. do
*h₁eǵʰs out Lat. ex, Gk. ἐκ (ek)/ἐξ (eks), Gaul. ex-, Ir. ass/as; acht/; echtar, Russ. из (iz), Alb. jashtë, Oscan eh-, Umbrian ehe-, Lith. iš, Ltv. iz, OPruss. is, Welsh ech-[3]
*h₁eǵʰs-tos outside Gk. ektos[3]
*h₁eǵʰs-tro- / *h₁eǵʰs-ter extra Lat. extra,[3] Welsh eithr "except, besides"
*h₁en in Gk. en, Lat. in, Eng. in/in, Gm. in/in, īn/ein-, Ir. i, Welsh yn, Arm. i, Alb. në, OPruss. en, OCS vŭ(n)-,[2] Luw. anda, Carian nt_a, Goth. in, ON í, Ir. in/i, Lith. į, Ltv. iekšā
*h₁en-ter within, inside Ved. antár "between", Lat. inter "between, among", Gm. untar/unter "between, among" (see also *n̥dʰ-er below), Ir. eter/idir "between", Cornish ynter, Alb. ndër "between, in",[2] Pers. ændær "inside", SCr. unutar "within"
*h₁eti beyond, over (about quantity), besides Lat. et, etiam, Gk. ἔτι, οὐκέτι, Ved. अति (ati), Av. aiti, OPruss. et-, at- , Eng. ed-, edgrow, Gaul. eti, t-ic
*h₁opi / h₁epi near, at, upon, by Ved. ápi "by, on", Gk. epí "on", Lat. ob "on", Arm. ew "and",[2] Av. aipi, Lith. api-, apie, Alb. afër "near" [3]
*h₁neu without Khot. anau "without" Osset. aenae Gk. aneu
*km̥-th₂ / *km̥-ti by, along Hitt. katta "with", Gaul. kanta "with", Gk. katá "down"[2][3] Welsh gan
*kom with Lat. cum, Ir. co/?,[2] Welsh cyf-
*medʰi in the middle Pers., miyan Av. madiiana, Khot. mayana-, Ved. madhyama Lat. medius OPruss. median Goth. miduma "the middle" OCS meždu,[3] Welsh y mewn
*n̥dʰ-eri under Ved. adhás, Av. aδairi, Lat. īnfr-ā, Eng. under/under, Arm. ənd,[2] Pers. ?/zēr, ON und, Goth. undar, Gm. untar/unter, Arm. ĕndhup/ĕnthub
*ni down, under Ved. ní, Eng. ne-ther, Arm. ni, OCS ni-zŭ[2]
*nu now Hitt. nu, Luw. nanun, Ved. nū, OPers. nūra/?, Pers. æknun/konun/?, Gk. nun, Lat. nunc, ON nū, Goth. nu, Eng. nū/now, Gm. nu/nun, Toch. nuṃ/nano, Lith. nū, Ltv. nu, OPruss. teinu, OCS nu, Alb. tani, Arb. naní (but see the list of conjunctions below)
*h₃ebʰi, h₃bʰi towards, into, at OCS объ[3]
*pe with, together Hitt. pe-
*per(i) around, through Ved. pári "around, forth", Gk. perí "around", Lat. per "through", OPruss. per, Alb. për,[2] Russ. pere- "through, over"
*per / *pero / *prō before, forth, in front of, ahead of Hitt. per, Ved. prā, Lat. per, prō, Eng. for/fore-, Gm. ?/vor, Welsh rhy, rhag, er, Lith. per, pro, Alb. para, Pers. pær-/pæri-/par-, Russ. pered
*pos after Ved. pascat, Lat. post, Lith. paskui[5]
*r̥ / *rō / *rō-dʰi for (enclitic), for the purpose of Ved. OCS ради
*trh₂os through Ved. tiras, Lat. trāns, Eng. through, OIr. tar,[5] Welsh tra
*uper above Ved. upári, Gk. hupér, Lat. s-uper, Eng. over, Ir. for/fara, Welsh gor-, gwar- Arm. (i) ver "up"[2] Alb. sipër
*up / *upo under, below Ved. úpa "up to", Gk. hupó "below", Lat. s-ub, Ir. fo/faoi,[2] Welsh go-, gwa- Hitt. upzi, Av. upa, Pers. upa/?, Umb. sub, Osc. sup, ON upp, Goth. iup, Eng. upp/up, Gm. uf/auf, Welsh go, Gaul. voretus, Toch. ?/spe, Lith. po

Untranslated reflexes have the same meaning as the PIE word.

In the following languages, two reflexes separated by a slash mean:

Negators

Two negators can be reconstructed, *ne and *, the latter only used for negative commands. The so-called privative prefix *n̥- is likely the zero grade of *ne.
Particle Meaning Reflexes
*ne sentence negator Ved. ná, Lat. nē/ne-, Eng. ne/no, Gm. ne/nein, Lith. nè, OCS ne,[6] Hitt. natta, Luw. ni-, Lyc. ni-, Lyd. ni-, Av. na, Pers. na/?, Gk. ne-, Osc. ne, Umb. an-, ON né, Goth. ni, Ir. ní/ní, Welsh ni, Arm. an-, Toch. an-/en-, Ltv. ne, OPruss. ne, Pol. nie, Russ. ne, net, Alb. nuk
*n̥- privative prefix Hitt. am-, Ved. a(n)-, Gk. a(n)-, Lat. in-, Alb. e-, Eng. un-,[6] Gm. un-
*mā negator for commands Ved. mā, Per ma-, Gk. mē (Doric mā)[6] Alb. mos

Adverbs derived from adjectives

Adverbs derived from adjectives (like English bold-ly, beautiful-ly) arguably cannot be classified as particles. In Proto-Indo-European, these are simply case forms of adjectives and thus better classified as nouns. An example is *meǵh₂ "greatly", a nominative-accusative singular.[7]

Conjunctions

The following conjunctions can be reconstructed:[8]

Particle Meaning Reflexes
*kʷe and, word or phrase connector Hitt. -ku, Ved. ca, Av. ca, Gk. te, Lat. -que, Celtib. kue, Per ke
*wē or, word or phrase disjunctor Ved. vā, Gk. -(w)ē, Lat. -ve
*de and, sentence connector Gk. dé, Alb. dhe, Russ. da "and"
*nu and, sentence connector Hitt. nu, Ved. nú, Gk. nú, Toch. ?/nu, Ir. no-/?, OCS(but see the adverbs above)

Placed after the joined word, as in Latin Senatus populus-que Romanus ("Senate and people of Rome"), -que joining senatus and populus.

Interjections

There is only one PIE interjection which can be securely reconstructed, the second is tentative:[8]
Particle Meaning Reflexes
*wai! expression of woe or agony Hitt. uwai, Lat. vae, Welsh gwae, Breton gwa, Eng. woe, ON. vei,[9] Pers. vai, Kurd. wai, Ved. uvē, Gk. aī, aī aī (woe!, alas!), Ltv. ai, vai
*ō! / *eh₃! (?) oh! Gk. ō,[10] Lat. ō,[11] Eng. oh!, Gm. oh!, Russ. o!,[12] Pers. e!

Notes

  1. ^ Fortson (2004:133–4)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fortson (2004:134)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Blažek : Indo-European Prepositions and Related Words (2005)
  4. ^ Fortson (2004:239)
  5. ^ a b Beekes
  6. ^ a b c Fortson (2004:133)
  7. ^ Fortson (2004:132–3)
  8. ^ a b Fortson (2004:134–5)
  9. ^ Geir T. Zoëga (1910). "A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic". 
  10. ^ Schäfer & Zimmermann (1990:457)
  11. ^ Petschenig (1994:339)
  12. ^ Schenk (1998:)

References

  • Fortson, Benjamin W., IV (2004), Indo-European Language and Culture, Blackwell Publishing,  
  • Petschenig, M (1994), Der kleine Stowasser (in German), Vienna: Oldenbourg Schulbuchverlag,  
  • Schäfer, K-H; Zimmermann, B (1990), Taschenwörterbuch Altgriechisch (in German) (3 ed.), Munich: Langenscheidt,  
  • Schenk, W (1998), Handwörterbuch Russisch (in German), Munich: Langenscheidt,  
  • Blažek, Václav (2005), Indo-European Prepositions and Related Words,  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.