World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pembina Region

Article Id: WHEBN0002685699
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pembina Region  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Rupert's Land
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Pembina Region

Warning: Value not specified for ""
Pembina Region
United States





Location of }
Capital Washington DC (1818–1849)
Bismarck (1883–1889)
Government Unorganized unincorporated Territory or Region
 •  Former British Territory October 19, 1818
 •  Created from Treaty of 1818. 1818
 •  US/British boundary change to US 1818
 •  To Territory of Missouri October 20, 1818
 •  unorganized Territory (after Missouri became a state) August 10, 1821
 •  Dakota Territotry March 2, 1861
 •  North Dakota and South Dakota statehood November 2, 1889

The Pembina Region ( ), also referred to as the Pembina District and Pembina Department,[1] is the historic name of an United States. The area included parts of what became North Dakota, and a portion of central eastern to northeastern South Dakota. The eastern boundary was the Red River, and included the Pembina River area. The region was formerly part of British Rupert's Land and the Red River Colony (controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company), that encompassed an area then known as the Assiniboia District, from 1763 to the signing of the Treaty of 1818. The treaty transferred the region that was south of the 49th parallel from the British to the United States.

The area was referred to as the Pembina Territory after the U.S. army explorer Stephen Harriman Long made surveys during the 1823 expedition to the Red River of the North and placed an International Boundary marker north of Pembina clearly defining the border between the United States and British North America. From 1818 until 1823 Pembina was consider (by both countries) to be within the boundary of the United Kingdom. Territorial status as Pembina never reached fruition because of area political fighting.

Several attempts at formal recognition and naming failed to pass Congress. In 1849 Father Territory of Minnesota. When Minnesota became a state on May 11, 1858, and the boundary was set at the Red River, the region became unorganized.

The remaining region that failed to make territory status was finally absorbed into the states of North and South Dakota.


  • History 1
    • Treaties 1.1
    • Territory of Pembina 1.2
    • Territory of Minnesota 1.3
  • See also 2
  • References 3



Several events shaped the area of the Pembina Region within the United States. The Louisiana Purchase (1803) included almost all of current South Dakota, the southern half and some of the north central part of Minnesota, that became the District of Louisiana. The area was populated mostly with Chippewa (Ojibwe), fur trappers, and Métis, that were a mixture of French and Indian.

After trying unsuccessfully to get a British land grant, because the land was under a monopoly of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk acquired controlling interest in the HBC and received 116,000 square miles of land in the Selkirk Concession of 1811. The area of land within the grant became known as the Assiniboia Territory,[3] and extended south to the watershed of the Red River near the 45th parallel north. [4] The current community of Pembina was within the area.


The Treaty of Paris (1783) did not clearly set northern United States/Canadian boundaries. According to the treaty the boundary line was to leave the Northwestern most point of the Lake of the Woods (the current boundary) "on a due West Course to the river Mississippi"[5] which is much farther south.

Jay Treaty (1796) boundaries issues were still unresolved in 1801. The Treaty of Ghent (1814-1815). The Rush–Bagot Treaty (April 16, 1818) was a treaty of disarmament and peaceful negotiations creating a demilitarized boundary. The following Treaty of Washington (1871) set up peaceful international arbitration. Indian treaties further open land to expansion and this was the beginning of the seeking of territorial status.

The Treaty of 1818 (October 20, 1818) was a land swap trading British land that extended south of the new 49th parallel boundary for US land that extended north of border. After a border survey in 1823 the Hudson's Bay Company could not continued to assume that Pembina stood on British soil and moved into southern Canada.

The United States in 1819

Territory of Pembina

After the treaty 1818, the area of the Red River watershed south of the 49th parallel was transferred to the United States. This area was originally part of the Louisiana purchase that was renamed the Missouri Territory in 1812. The territorial government seat was in St. Louis. The entire area likely could have reached statehood, as one state, very early but there were factions fighting for their own agenda's and this prevented any specific territorial solution.

Territory of Minnesota

After 1849, the region of Pembina became part of the West and East River Territories.

In 1868, after the discovery of gold in the Black Hills (1876), there was a proposal to separate the western half into the “Territory of Lincoln” and the eastern half as the Dakota Territory. In February 1872 the Senate Committee on Territories reviewed a bill to create the Pembina Territory with the capital at Bismarck, and Dakota (present day South Dakota) with Yankton as the capital.[6]

A final solution was found on November 2, 1889, when both North and South Dakota became separate states.

See also


  1. ^ "Pembina State Museum - The Pembina Region". State Historical Society of North Dakota. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  2. ^ "The History and Culture of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa". North Dakota Studies. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  3. ^ Ossiniboia Territory- Retrieved 2014-12-26
  4. ^ territory of Assiniboia map; State Historical Society of North Dakota- Retrieved 2014-12-26
  5. ^ US/Canada boundary- Retrieved 2014-12-26
  6. ^ Kingsbury, George Washington (1915). "History of Dakota Territory, Volume 2". S. J. Clarke publishing Company. p. 1612. Retrieved October 4, 2015. 

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.