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Medical Sociology


Medical sociology is the sociological analysis of medical organizations and institutions; the production of knowledges and selection of methods, the actions and interactions of healthcare professionals, and the social or cultural (rather than clinical or bodily) effects of medical practice.

 
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World Health Organization : Year 2006 ; The Special Programme for ...

By: Julia Kemp, Ph. D.

Medical Reference Publication

ABSTRACT Although more men than women are diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), more than half a million women die each year from this disease. The higher proportion of male cases consistently reported by TB programmes may accurately reflect a greater prevalence among men, or it may be an artifact of persisting geographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and health service- related barriers that disproportionately affect timely diagnosis and treatment in women. Despite no...

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World Health Organization ; World Health Organization Offeset Publ...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

PREFACE This account of recent progress in the characterization of venoms and the standardization of antivenoms is based on the report of a WHO Coordination Meeting on Venoms and Antivenoms, which was held in Zurich, Switzerland, from 24 to 27 September 1979. The participants in that meeting are listed in Annex 9. The remaining eight annexes provide much useful supplementary information, including detailed instructions for the processing and characterization of venoms an...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2006 ; Issue 92415944...

By: Deborah Kioy, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

This document is the revised version of the draft handbook Quality standards in basic biomedical research (TDR/PRD/QSBR/01.1), published in 2001. The draft handbook was based on the deliberations of a specialized scientific working group (SWG) convened by the UNDP/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR).1 The SWG, composed of independent scientific experts, met in Geneva 4-6 September 2000 to discuss var...

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South-East Asia Series : Year 1985-93, South-East Asia Region ; Ar...

By: J. P. Mishra

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION An Intercountry Meeting of Programme Managers on Acutc Respiratory Infections was organized at the WHO Regional Office for South-Eaqt Asia, New Dclhi, from 12 to 16 October 1992. The list of participants and the programme are given in Annexes 1 and 2 respectively. Dr (MIS) Malini De Silva (Sri Lanka) was nominated Chairperson, and Mr J.P. Mishra (India) as Vice Chairman. Mx Kumx Pnsad Lamichhanc (Nepal) was elected as Rapponeur.

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South-East Asia Series : Seas, South-East Asia Region ; Series, No...

By: Uton Mnuchtar Rafei, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

Fore word WHO priorities in the 1990s are to improve adpromote essential health technolog?. applicable at the primary health care level and the immediate supporting level of the health system to accelerate the process of Health for All by the Year 2000. Primary health care was conceived as a key approach to achieving health for all. Conceptually, it represented a radical departure from the conventional health care system. The strategies for achieving health for all are b...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 654, (Par...

By: R. Di Perri

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION Involvement of peripheral nerves in disease states-a major cause of disabling morbidity-is common in all parts of the world. The putative etiological factors (including genetic, nutritional, metabolic, and toxic factors) are diverse, numerous, and bewildering in the complexity of their modes of action and interaction as well as in the nature of the biochemical and structural lesions produced. Even in diseases of the peripheral nerves, such as leprosy (pri...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 674: Trep...

By: E. M. C. Dunlop

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION In 1975, following the Technical Discussions at the Twenty-eighth World Health Assembly on Social aspects of sexually transmitted diseases: need for a better approach, the Health Assembly in resolution WHA 28.58 invited governments to make optimal use of existing services and health structures to strengthen the control of sexually transmitted diseases, including syphilis, and requested the Director- General of WHO to provide Member States uith the ad~icea...

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Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone

By: Susan Rieth

Excerpt: The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to methyl ethyl ketone. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of methyl ethyl ketone.

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Toxicological Review of Phenol

By: Monica A. Barron

Excerpt: FOREWORD: The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to phenol. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of phenol.

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Toxicological Review of Acrolein

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. Note: This document may undergo revisions in the future. The most up-to-date version will be made available electronically via the IRIS Home Page at http://www.epa.gov/iris.

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Guidelines for Neurotoxicity Risk Assessment

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

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Guidelines to Physicians in Conducting Mercury Medical Surveillanc...

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: Inhalation of mercury vapor is the most important route of uptake for elemental mercury. Approximately 80% of inhaled mercury is retained. Oxidation of elemental mercury (HgE) to divalent mercury (Hg++) is a critical event. Divalent mercury is much less likely to cross cell membranes. The oxidation of elemental mercury to divalent ionic mercury takes place very quickly after absorption, but some elemental mercury remains dissolved in the blood long enough to be ...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Federal Prote...

By: Erin D. Williams

Summary: The Common Rule (45 CFR 46, Subpart A) governs research that is conducted on human beings if it is funded by one of 18 federal agencies. It requires a review of proposed research by an Institutional Review Board (IRB), the informed consent of research subjects, and institutional assurances of compliance with the regulations. In 1974, 45 CFR 46 was published following some cases of harm to human subjects, such as those caused by thalidomide drug trials and the Un...

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Background Document on Gulf War-Related Research for the Health Im...

By: William Richards

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The purpose of this document is to provide background information to participants in the upcoming conference, The Health Impact of Chemical Exposures During the Gulf War: A Research Planning Conference, sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in coordination with the Office of Public Health and Science (Department of Health and Human Services), the National Institutes of Health, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Regist...

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Sampling and Characterization of Bioaerosols

By: Paul A. Jensen

INTRODUCTION: A. General. Bioaerosol monitoring is a rapidly emerging area of industrial hygiene. Bioaerosol monitoring includes the measurement of viable (culturable and nonculturable) and nonviable microorganisms in both indoor (e.g., industrial, office or residential) and outdoor (e.g., agricultural and general air quality) environments. In general, indoor bioaerosol sampling need not be performed if visible growth is observed.

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World Health Organization : Year 1997 ; World Health Organization,...

By: Ji Baohong, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

Since the last meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy (I), held in Geneva fiom 17 to 24 November 1987, tremendous progress has been made in controlling the disease worldwide, and the global picture of leprosy endemicity has been changed dramatically. The very promising results achieved in the first ten years of implementing multidrug therapy (MDT) led to the vision of eliminating leprosy as a public health problem by the year 2000. This was formally adopted as a ...

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World Health Organization : Year 2001 ; Communicable Diseases and ...

By: John Buntine

Medical Reference Publication

Introduction In 1998, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative (GBUI) in response to the growing spread and impact of Buruli ulcer, Mycobacterium ulcerans disease. The disease exists or has been suspected in at least 31 countries (Fig. 1). The primary objectives of the GBUI are: to raise awareness of the disease, to mobilize support for affected countries, to promote and to coordinate research activities and to coordinate the wor...

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Classification and Coding Instructions for Fetal Death Records, 19...

By: Department of Health and Human Services

This manual documents specifications for coding and key entry of statistical items that will be tabulated from the fetal death report by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Primarily, these specifications are used by 49 registration areas of the United States (45 states, District of Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico and The Virgin Islands) that submit data to NCHS in electronic form through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program (VSCP). Under the terms...

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Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States : Guidelin...

By: Richard M. Kinney, Ph. D.

Executive Summary: The epidemic/epizootic of West Nile (WN) virus in the northeastern United States in the summer and fall of 1999 was an unprecedented event, underscoring the ease with which emerging infectious pathogens can move into new geographic areas. The outbreak also raised the issue of the preparedness of many local, state and national public health agencies to deal with epidemics of vector-borne diseases in this country. Because it is unknown whether WN virus w...

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Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States : Guidelin...

By: James M. Hughes, M. D.

Executive Summary: The epidemic/epizootic of West Nile (WN) virus in the northeastern United States in the summer and fall of 1999 was an unprecedented event, underscoring the ease with which emerging infectious pathogens can move into new geographic areas. The outbreak also raised the issue of the preparedness of many local, state and national public health agencies to deal with epidemics of vector-borne diseases in this country. Because it is unknown whether WN virus w...

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