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The Evolution of Electron Current Sheet and Formation of Secondary...

By: S. Wang; Z. Yang; M. Wu; C. Huang; Q. Dong; Q. Lu

Description: CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China. Two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are performed to investigate the evolution of the electron current sheet (ECS) in guide field reconnection. The ECS is formed by electrons accelerated by the inductive electric field in the vicinity of the X line, which is then extended alon...

Birdsall, C. K. and Langdon, A. B.: Plasma Physics via Computer Simulation, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 1985.; Biskamp, D.: Magnetic Reconnection in Plasmas, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000.; Daughton, W.: Surprising new results on the structure of the diffusion region, Eos Trans. AGU, 88, Jt. Assem. Suppl., Abstract SM53C-04, 2007.; Birn, J., Drake, J. F., Shay, M. A., Rogers, B. N., Denton, R. E., Hesse, M., Kuznetsova, M., Ma, Z. W., Bhattacharjee, A., Otto, ...

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Magnetic Transfer Function Entropy and the 2009 MW = 6.3 L'Aquila ...

By: D. R. Barraclough; L. X. Wu; A. De Santis; G. Cianchini; K. Qin

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia – Roma , Italy. With the aim of obtaining a deeper knowledge of the physical phenomena associated with the 2009 L'Aquila (Central Italy) seismic sequence, culminating with a Mw = 6.3 earthquake on 6 April 2009, and possibly of identifying some kind of earthquake-related magnetic or geoelectric anomaly, we analyse the geomagnetic field components measured at the magnetic observatory of L'Aq...

Armadillo, E., Bozzo, E., Cerv, V., De Santis, A., Di Mauro, D., Gambetta, M., Meloni, A., Pek, J., and Speranza, F.: Geomagnetic depth sounding in the Northern Appennines (Italy), Earth Planet. Space, 53, 385–396, 2001.; Banks, R.: Data processing and interpretation in geomagnetic deep sounding, Phys. Earth Planet Int., 7, 339–348, 1973.; Banks, R.: Geomagnetic deep sounding, in: Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, edited by: Gubbins, D. and Herrero-Bervera...

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Modeling Stretched Solitary Waves Along Magnetic Field Lines : Vol...

By: M. Berthomier; C. W. Carlson; I. Roth; L. Muschietti

Description: Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, USA. A model is presented for a new type of fast solitary waves which is observed in downward current regions of the auroral zone. The three-dimensional, coherent structures are electrostatic, have a positive potential, and move along the magnetic field lines with speeds on the order of the electron drift. Their parallel potential profile is flattened and cannot fit to the ...

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Clarification of the Hall Effect as an Energy Transfer Mechanism i...

By: A. De Paor

Description: Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, National University of Ireland, Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Clarification is offered of the energy transfer role played by the Hall effect in a recent paper: de Paor, A., A theory of the Earth's magnetic field and of sunspots, based on a self-excited dynamo incorporating the Hall effect, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 8, 265-279, 2001.

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Derivation of Boussinesq's Shoaling Law Using a Coupled Bbm System...

By: A. Senthilkumar; H. Kalisch

Description: Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, Postbox 7800, 5020 Bergen, Norway. This paper is focused on finding rules for waveheight change in a solitary wave as it runs up a slowly increasing bottom. A coupled BBM system is used to describe the solitary waves. Expressions for energy density and energy flux associated with the BBM system are derived, and the principle of energy conservation is used to develop an equation relating the waveheight and...

Ali, A. and Kalisch, H.: Mechanical balance laws for Boussinesq models of surface water waves, J. Nonlinear Sci., 22, 371–398, doi:10.1007/s00332-011-9121-2, 2012. \bibitem[Benjamin et al.(1972)] BBM Benjamin, T. B., Bona, J. B. and Mahony, J. J.: Model equations for long waves in nonlinear dispersive systems, Philos. T. R. Soc. A, 272, 47–78, 1972.; Bj\o rkav\aa g, M. and Kalisch, H.: Wave breaking in Boussinesq mo...

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On the Spectral Distribution of Kinetic Energy in Large-scale Atmo...

By: A. Wiin-nielsen

Description: Geophysical Department, Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. A one-dimensional form of the equation of motion with forcing and dissipation is formulated in the spectral domain and used to make long term integrations from which the spectral distribution of the kinetic energy is determined The forcing in the wave number domain is determined in advance and kept constant for the duration...

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Quantification of Tillage, Plant Cover, and Cumulative Rainfall Ef...

By: E. Vidal Vázquez; I. Bertol; J. Paz-ferreiro

Description: Faculty of Sciences, University of Corunna-UDC, Spain. Changes in soil surface microrelief with cumulative rainfall under different tillage systems and crop cover conditions were investigated in southern Brazil. Surface cover was none (fallow) or the crop succession maize followed by oats. Tillage treatments were: 1) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS), 2) conventional tillage (CT), 3) minimum tillage (MT) and 4) no tillage (N...

Allmaras, R. R., Burwell, R. E., Larson, W. E., and Holt, R. F.: Total porosity and random roughness of the interrow zone as influenced by tillage, USDA Conservation Res. Rep., 7, 22 pp., 1966.; Armstrong, A. C.: On the fractal dimensions of some transient soil properties, J. of Soil Sci., 37, 641–652, 1986.; Bertol, I., Schick, J., Batistela, O., Leite, D., Visentin, D., and Cogo, N. P.: Erosividade das chuvas e sua distribuição entre 1989 e 1998 no Municipio de Lages (...

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Observing Spatio-temporal Clustering and Separation Using Intereve...

By: H. Kantz; R. C. Batac

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, 01187, Dresden, Germany. Past studies that attempted to quantify the spatio-temporal organization of seismicity have defined the conditions by which an event and those that follow it can be related in space and/or time. In this work, we use the simplest measures of spatio-temporal separation: the interevent distances R and interevent times T between pairs of successive ev...

Acharya, H. K. and Aggarwal, Y. P.: Seismicity and tectonics of the Philippine Islands, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 3239–3250, doi:10.1029/JB085iB06p03239, 1980.; Anderson, J. G. and Nanjo, K.: Distribution of Earthquake Cluster Sizes in the Western United States and in Japan, B. Seismol. Soc. Am., 103, 412–423, 2013.; Baiesi, M. and Paczuski, M.: Scale-free networks of earthquakes and aftershocks, Phys. Rev. E, 69, 066106,...

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Comprehensive Analysis of Tornado Statistics in Comparison to Eart...

By: P. Névir; L. Schielicke

Description: Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Meteorologie, Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6–10, 12165 Berlin, Germany. Tornadoes and earthquakes are characterised by a high variability in their properties concerning intensity, geometric properties and temporal behaviour. Earthquakes are known for power-law behaviour in their intensity (Gutenberg–Richter law) and temporal statistics (e.g. Omori law and interevent waiting times). The observed similarity of high variab...

Davis, P. M., Jackson, D. D., and Kagan, Y. Y.: The longer it has been since the last earthquake, the longer the expected time till the next?, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 79, 1439–1456, 1989.; Doswell III, C. A., Edwards, R., Thompson, R. L., Hart, J. A., and Crosbie, K. C.: A simple and flexible method for ranking severe weather events, Weather Forecast., 21, 939–951, 2006.; Doswell III, C. A., Brooks, H. E., and Dotzek, N.: On the implementation of the enhanced Fujita scale...

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Controlling Thermal Chaos in the Mantle by Positive Feedback from ...

By: D. A. Yuen; E. S. G. Rainey; F. Dubuffet

Description: Minnesota Supercomputing Institute and Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55415-1227, USA. The thermal conductivity of mantle materials has two components, the lattice component klat from phonons and the radiative component krad due to photons. These two contributions of variable thermal conductivity have a nonlinear dependence in the temperature, thus endowing the...

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Model of Strong Stationary Vortex Turbulence in Space Plasmas : Vo...

By: Kh. Z. Chargazia; G. Zimbardo; L. M. Zelenyi; G. D. Aburjania

Description: I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University,2 University str., 0143 Tbilisi, Georgia. This paper investigates the macroscopic consequences of nonlinear solitary vortex structures in magnetized space plasmas by developing theoretical model of plasma turbulence. Strongly localized vortex patterns contain trapped particles and, propagating in a medium, excite substantial density fluctuations and thus, intensify the energy, heat and mass transport processes, ...

Abel, G. A., Freeman, M. P., and Chisham, G.: Spatial structure of ionospheric convection velocities in regions of open and closed magnetic field topology, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24103, doi:10.1029/2006GL027919, 2006.; Aburjania, G. D., Mikhailovskii, A. B., and Lakhin, V. P.: Nonlinear Regular Structures of Drift Magnetoacoustic Waves, Jo. Plasma Phys., 38, 373–386, 1987.; Aburjania, G. D.: Electromagnetic drift vortices in a rotating plasma cylinder, Physica Scripta...

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Cross Wavelet Analysis: Significance Testing and Pitfalls : Volume...

By: J. Kurths; D. Maraun

Description: Department of Physics, Potsdam University, D-14415 Potsdam, Germany. In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross sp...

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On the Possibility of Precursors of Earthquakes in Vlf Range Obser...

By: A. K. Gwal; D. K. Sondhiya; S. Kumar

Description: Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, India. Very Low Frequency (VLF) disturbances in the ionospheric electric field observed by DEMETER satellite prior to three different earthquakes that occurred during the years 2008–2009 have been presented. The electromagnetic wave data has been analyzed for few days before the earthquake with special attention to the variation in spectral characteristics and non-li...

Antonov, N. V., Lanotte, A., and Mazzino, A.: Persistence of small-scale anisotropies and anomalous scaling in a model of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence, Phys. Rev. E, 61, 6586–6605, doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.61.6586, 2000.; Artemyev, A. V., Orlova, K. G., Mourenas, D., Agapitov, O. V., and Krasnoselskikh, V. V.: Electron pitch-angle diffusion: resonant scattering by waves vs. nonadiabatic effects, Ann. Geophys., 31, 148...

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Quantitative Analysis of Randomness Exhibited by River Channels Us...

By: T. Verbovšek; G. Žibret

Description: Geological Survey of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia. This paper presents a numerical evaluation of the randomness which can be observed in the geometry of major river channels. The method used is based upon that of generating a Sierpinski triangle via the chaos game technique, played with the sequence representing the river topography. The property of the Sierpinski triangle is that it can be constructed only by playing a chaos game with random values. P...

Jeffrey, H. J.: Chaos game visualization of sequences, Comput. Graph., 16 (1), 25–33, 1992.; Angeles, G. R, Perillo, M. E., Piccolo, M. C., and Pierini, J. O.: Fractal analysis of tidal channels in the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina), Geomorphology, 57, 263–274, 2004.; Beauvais, A. A. and Montgomery, D. R.: Are channel networks statistically self-similar?, Geology, 25 (12), 1063–1066, 1997.; Barnsley M.: Fractals Everywhere, Academic Press, New York, 1988.; Horton, R. E...

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Statistical Properties of Galaxy Distributions : Volume 3, Issue 4...

By: L. Pietronero; F. Sylos Labini

Description: INFM Sezione de Romal, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza, P. lc A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma, Italy. The recent availability of complete three dimensional samples of galaxies and clusters permits a direct study of their spatial properties. We present a brief review of galaxy correlations based on the methods modern statistical Physics. These methods which able to identify self-similar and non-anal...

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Time-scale Invariant Changes in Atmospheric Radon Concentration an...

By: Y. Yasuoka; Y. Omori; T. Ishikawa; H. Nagahama; Y. Kawada; S. Tokonami; M. Shinogi

Description: Department of Geoenvironmental Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Prior to large earthquakes (e.g. 1995 Kobe earthquake, Japan), an increase in the atmospheric radon concentration is observed, and this increase in the rate follows a power-law of the time-to-earthquake (time-to-failure). This phenomenon corresponds to the increase in the radon migration in crust and the exhalation into atmosphere. An irreversible therm...

Ball, T. K., Cameron, D. G., Colman, T. B., and Roberts, P. D.: Behaviour of radon in the geological environment: a review, Quart. J. Engng. Geol., 24, 169–182, 1991.; Bear, J.: Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media, Elsevier, New York, 1972.; Biot, M. A.: General theory of three-dimensional consolidation, J. Appl. Phys., 12, 155–164, 1941.; Ben-Zion, Y. and Lyakhovsky, V.: Accelerated seismic release and related aspects of seismicity patterns on earthquake faults, Pure App...

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Multi-scale Analysis of Teleconnection Indices: Climate Noise and ...

By: C. Franzke

Description: British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge, UK. The multi-scale nature and climate noise properties of teleconnection indices are examined by using the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) procedure. The EMD procedure allows for the analysis of non-stationary time series to extract physically meaningful intrinsic mode functions (IMF) and nonlinear trends. The climatologically relevant monthly mean teleconnection indices of th...

Bengtsson, L., Hagemann, S., and Hodges, K. I.: Can climate trends be calculated from reanalysis data?, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11111, doi:10.1029/2004JD004536.; Cash, B. A. and Lee, S.: Observed Nonmodal Growth of the Pacific-North American Teleconnection Pattern, J. Climate, 14, 1017–1028, 2001.; Crommelin, D. T. and Vanden-Eijnden, E.: Reconstruction of Diffusions using spectral data from timeseries, Comm. Math. Sci., 4, 651–668, 2006.; Czaja, A., Robertson, A. W., an...

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On the Interaction of Wind and Steep Gravity Wave Groups Using Mil...

By: C. Kharif; E. Pelinovsky; J.-p. Giovanangeli; J. Touboul

Description: Laboratoire de Sondages Electromagnétiques de l'Environnement Terrestre, Toulon, France. The interaction of wind and water wave groups is investigated theoretically and numerically. A steep wave train is generated by means of dispersive focusing, using both the linear theory and fully nonlinear equations. The linear theory is based on the Schrödinger equation while the nonlinear approach is developed numerically within the framework of the potential the...

Banner, M. I. and Song, J.-B.: On determining the onset and strength of breaking for deep water waves. part ii : Influence of wind forcing and surface shear, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32(9), 2559–2570, 2002.; Belcher, S. E. and Hunt, J. C. R.: Turbulent flows over hill and waves, Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech., 30, 507–538, 1998.; Benney, D. J. and Newell, A. C.: The propagation of nonlinear wave envelop, J. Math. Phys., 46, 133–139, 1967.; Brown, M. G. and Jensen, A.: Experiments on...

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Estimation of Soil Types by Non Linear Analysis of Remote Sensing ...

By: R. Gloaguen; C. Hahn

Description: Remote Sensing Group, Geology Institute, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09599 Freiberg, Germany. The knowledge of soil type and soil texture is crucial for environmental monitoring purpose and risk assessment. Unfortunately, their mapping using classical techniques is time consuming and costly. We present here a way to estimate soil types based on limited field observations and remote sensing data. Due to the fact that the relation between the soil types an...

Agresti, A.: An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis, Wiley Press, p. 312, 1996; Bhattacharya, B. and Solomatine, D P.: Machine learning in soil classification, Neural Networks, 19, 186–195, 2006.; Bradley, J. V.: Distribution-Free Statistical Tests, Prentice-Hall Press, p. 388, 1968.; Burges, C. J C.: A Tutorial on Support Vector Machines for Pattern Recognition, Data Min. Knowl. Disk., 2, 121–167, 1998.; Chen, P.-H., Lin, C.-J., and Schölkopf, B.: A Tutorial on nu...

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Development and Analysis of a Simple Model to Represent the Zero R...

By: D. Schertzer; I. Tchiguirinskaia; S. Lovejoy; A. Gires

Description: Université Paris Est, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, LEESU, Marne-la-Vallée, France. High-resolution rainfall fields contain numerous zeros (i.e. pixels or time steps with no rain) which are either real or artificial – that is to say associated with the limit of detection of the rainfall measurement device. In this paper we revisit the enduring discussion on the source of this intermittency, e.g. whether it requires specific modelling. We first review the f...

de Lima, M. I. P. and de Lima, J. L. M. P.: Investigating the multifractality of point precipitation in the Madeira archipelago, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 16, 299–311, doi:10.5194/npg-16-299-2009, 2009.; de Lima, M. I. P. and Grasman, J.: Multifractal analysis of 15-min and daily rainfall from a semi-arid region in Portugal, J. Hydrol., 220, 1–11, 1999.; de Montera, L., Barthes, L., Mallet, C., and Gole, P.: The Eff...

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