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Becoming Martian

By: Terry Burlison

Description: This article presents new scientific findings which, with great hope, will take us steps closer to being able to travel to Mars.

Excerpt: Mars One intends to launch robotic missions beginning in 2016, establishing a communications and life-support infrastructure for the explorers while training private citizens for arrival several years later. The colony will consist of landers launched every two years and configured for different purposes: Life Support Units, Supply Units, and Living Units (with inflatable habitats). As each lander arrives, a rover/trailer, launched in 2018, will transport it to ...

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It's Lonely Out There: The Evolutionary Explanation for the Fermi ...

By: John Lambshead

Description: This article touches into the Fermi Paradox. It explains different theories by numerous scientists on the Fermi Paradox and John Lambshead's opinion on the theories.

Excerpt: Another untestable possibility is that aliens are deliberatively quarantining Earth for some social, scientific or alien reason. This is known somewhat unflatteringly as the Zoo Hypothesis. Presumably, some pettifogging minor official in the Galactic Central Bureaucracy has decided that we are not ready, or worthy, or whatever, to join the great Galactic Society.

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R.I.P., Moc

By: Terry Burlison

Description: This article explains the history of MOC (Missions Operations Computer) from its birth up to when it 'retired'.

Excerpt: The MOC’s original IBM 7094 was the fastest, most powerful computer of its day. It sported a whopping 64K of main core storage, the area of a computer where programs actually run. To get a sense of scale, consider that a modern laptop has about the same memory capacity as 100,000 MOCs. (Playing my copy of Angry Birds would require the memory of 500 IBM 7094s. And while fast for its day, the machine would require several months of 40-hour weeks to play a single minute of the game!)

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Rediscovering the Universe

By: Les Johnson

Description: Les Johnson takes history back to when the Universe was first created about 14 billion years ago. He explains the theories that scientists have developed about our currently expanding universe.

Excerpt: Since the stars in a galaxy, like our Milky Way Galaxy, orbit the massive black hole at their center in a manner similar to the way the planets in our solar system orbit the Sun, one would expect that the stars nearer the center of the galaxy to orbit faster than those near the edge. Unexpectedly, when astronomers measured their orbital velocities, they weren't moving as expected. In fact, measurements indicate that all of these stars are moving at about the same angular speed.

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The Closest Extra-solar Planet to Earth: What's Alpha Centauri Bb ...

By: Les Johnson

Description: Les Johnson talks about the new discovery of a possible earth-like planet that scientists have found in the Alpha Centauri star system.

Excerpt: Alpha Centauri A and B are particularly interesting for astronomers and science fiction writers because they are both very similar to our sun. If Sol, our sun, is “just right” for producing planets with life, then it would make sense that other similar stars could do the same. And since they are close, at least in astronomical distances – I wouldn’t call being ~25,278 billion miles away “close,” – any planets found there would be exciting and hugely significant....

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Rendevous and Docking: a User's Guide for Non Rocket Scientists

By: Terry Burlison

Description: A user's guide for non rocket scientists for rendevous and docking.

Excerpt: Two times each day, your launch site will pass directly under the plane of your target orbit. This is when you must launch! If you delay, you will be launching into a different orbital plane; even if it has the same inclination, it will cross the equator at a different point and create a wedge angle between the orbits. Since the earth rotates 360° in 24 hours, elementary school math tells you that’s a degree every 15 minutes. Very quickly, you’ll be too far out ...

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Rediscovering the Solar System

By: Les Johnson

Description: This article takes you back to our solar system. Over the years our solar system has changed. This article gives you up to date imformation about whats happening in our current day solar system.

Excerpt: It is likely that in the 4.5 billion year history of the Solar System, we’ve come close enough to other star systems for us to share members of our Oort Cloud with theirs. Yes, some of the objects now circling our star might actually have originated elsewhere – from around a star now long-gone on its own trek around the Milky Way.

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Evidence of Things Unseen: Why Not Dark Matter?

By: Les Johnson

Description: Les Johnson describes what scientists have discovered about Dark Matter.

Excerpt: Scientists now believe that dark matter accounts for about 84 percent of the matter in the universe. In other words, when you look into the sky and add up the mass of the planets, the Sun, all the stars (many of which, we now know, have planets circling them), the black holes, pulsars and quasars you will have only accounted for about 16% of the mass that should be there – if our understanding of gravity and its effects are correct. Something different (not made...

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Museum Bulletin

By: New York State Museum

Description: Title from cover

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Assimilation of Sla Along Track Observations in the Mediterranean ...

By: P. Oddo; N. Pinardi; C. Dufau; I. Pujol; S. Dobricic; M.-h. Rio

Description: Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna, Italy. A large number of SLA observations at a high along track horizontal resolution are an important ingredient of the data assimilation in the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS). Recently, new higher-frequency SLA products have become available, and the atmospheric pressure forcing has been implemented in the numerical model used in the MFS data assimilation system. In a set of...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., B\textasciidieresis oning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and de Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global circulation model at eddy permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., 56, 543–567. doi:10...

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Yearly Changes in Surface Solar Radiation in New Caledonia : Volum...

By: L. Wald; C. Coulaud; P. Blanc

Description: MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University, Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, BP 204, 06905 Sophia Antipolis CEDEX, France. New Caledonia experiences a decrease in surface solar irradiation since 2004. It is of order of 4% of the mean yearly irradiation over the 10 years period: 2004–2013, and amounts to −9 W m−2. The preeminent roles of the changes in cloud cover and to a lesser extent, those in aerosol optical depth on the decrease in yearl...

Boilley, A. and Wald, L.: Comparison between meteorological re-analyses from ERA-Interim and MERRA and measurements of daily solar irradiation at surface, Renew. Energy, 75, 135–143, doi:10.1016/j.renene.2014.09.042, 2015.; Kaiser, J. W., Peuch, V.-H., Benedetti, A., Boucher, O., Engelen, R. J., Holzer-Popp, T., Morcrette, J.-J., Wooster, M. J., and the MACC-II Management Board: The pre-operational GMES Atmospher...

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Topaz4: an Ocean-sea Ice Data Assimilation System for the North At...

By: K. A. Lisæter; F. Counillon; A. Korablev; L. Bertino; P. R. Oke; P. Sakov

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ – a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on result...

Antonov, J., Locarnini, R., Boyer, T., Mishonov, A., and Garcia, H.: World Ocean Atlas 2005 Volume 2: Salinity, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 62, 2006.; Bentsen, M., Evensen, G., Drange, H., and Jenkins, A. D.: Coordinate transformation on a sphere using conformal mapping, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2733–2740, 1999.; Bertino, L. and Lisæter, K.: The TOPAZ monitoring and prediction system for the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, Journal of Operational Oceanography, 2008, 15–18, 2008.; Beszc...

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Numerical Simulations of Spreading of the Persian Gulf Outflow Int...

By: A. A. Bidokhti; A. H. Javid; M. Ezam

Description: Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14155-775, Tehran, Iran. A three dimensional numerical model namely POM (Princeton Ocean Model) and observational data are used to study the Persian Gulf outflow structure and its spreading pathways during 1992. In the model, the monthly wind speed data were taken from ICOADS (International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set) and the monthly SST ...

Brewer, P. G., Fleer, A. P, Kadar, S., Shafer, D. K., and Smith, C. L.: Report A: Chemical oceanographic data from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, Rep. WHOI-78-37, 105 pp., 1978.; Bower, A. S., Armi, L., and Ambar, I.: Lagrangian observations of meddy formation during a Mediterranean Undercurrent seeding experiment, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 2545–2575, 1997.; Bower, A. S., Hunt, H. D., and Price, J. F.: Character and dynamics of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflow, J. ...

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Transient Residence and Exposure Times : Volume 2, Issue 1 (09/01/...

By: E. J. M. Delhez

Description: University of Liège, Mathematical Methods and Modelling, Belgium. The residence time measures the time spent by a water parcel or a pollutant in a given water body and is therefore widely used in environmental studies. The adjoint method introduced by Delhez et al. (2004) to compute this diagnostic is revised here to take into account the effect of the initialization and of the boundary conditions.

In addition to the equation for the mean...

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Science

By: Michels, John, 1875- edt; American Association for the Advancement of Science

Supplemental catalog subcollection information: American Libraries Collection; Historical Literature; A weekly record of scientific progress.; Edited by J. Michels; Since Jan. 1901 the official proceedings and most of the papers of the American Associatio

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Spatio-temporal Complexity Analysis of the Sea Surface Temperature...

By: L. T. David; L. Parrott; R. C. H. Del Rosario; Z. T. Botin

Description: Institute of Mathematics, University of the Philippines Diliman, 1101 Quezon City, Philippines. A spatio-temporal complexity (STC) measure which has been previously used to analyze data from terrestrial ecosystems is employed to analyse 21 years of remotely sensed sea-surface temperature (SST) data from the Philippines. STC on the Philippine wide SST showed the monsoonal variability of the Philippine waters. STC is correlated with the SST mean (R<...

Andrienko, Y. A., Brillantov, N. V., and Kurths, J.: Complexity of two-dimensional patterns, Eur. Phys. J., 15, 539–546, 2000.; Atmanspacher, H.: A {S}emiotic {A}pproach to {C}omplex {S}ystems, in: Aspects of Automatic Text Analysis, edited by: Mehler, A. and K{ö}hler, R., 79–91, Springer, Berlin, 2007.; Bak, P. and Chen, K.: Self-organized criticality, Scientific American, 264, 46–53, 1991.; Banks, H., del Rosario, R., and Tran, H.: Experimental Implementation of POD Ba...

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Bulletin - New York State Museum

By: New York State Museum

Description: No. 52-79, Bulletin of the University of the state of New York; no. 80-118, Bulletin of the New York State Education Dept

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Abhandlungen Der Königlichen Akademie Der Wissenschaften in Berlin

By: Deutsche Akademie Der Wissenschaften Zu Berlin

Description: Jahre 1869 (publ. 1870) issued in 2 vols

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Snapshot Observation of Physical Structure and Stratification in D...

By: J. Azizpour; H. A. Lahijani; P. Ghaffari

Description: Department of Physical Oceanography, Iranian National Center for Oceanography, No. 3, Western Fatemi, 1411813389, Tehran, Iran. In this article, we describe physical parameters structures and different water masses using CTD measurements in southwestern part of the Caspian Sea (CS) in adjacent to Anzali Port (AP). CTD profilings were conducted along a transect perpendicular to the coastline over 13 stations from the coast down to 720 m in winter 2008. Ac...

Bruevich, S. V.: Hydrochemistry of Middle and South Caspian Sea, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1973.; Emery, W. J., Tally, L. D., and Pickard, G. L.: Descriptive Physical Oceanography, Elsevier Science & Technology Books, 2006.; Emery, W. J. and Thomson, R. E.: Data Analysis Methods in Physical Oceanography, Elsevier Science B. V, Amsterdam, 2004.; Froehlich, K., Rozanski, K., Povinec, P., Oregioni, B., and Gastaud, J.: Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea, Sci. Total ...

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Transactions of the annual meetings of the Kansas Academy of Scien...

By: Kansas Academy of Science. Meeting

Supplemental catalog subcollection information: American Libraries Collection; Historical Literature; Chemical abstracts; Vols. for 1881-1899-1900 cover 14th and 15th-32nd and 33rd annual meetings; Vol. 1 (1872)-v. 17 (1900), with v. 18; Vols. for 1881/82

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